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Expofition of the Apocalypfe: 


PREFACE to that WORK, 

And the greateft Part of 

... And alfo his Marginal Notes on the Text, 


A Summary of the whole Exposition. 
Translated from the High-Dutch 



Sold by J. Ryall and R. W^'^hy, at Hogarth's Head 
and Dial oppofite to Salifbury-Court, Fket-Jireet^ 





TN the Propofah for printing the enfiiing 
Treatife I declared my high opinion of the 
merit of the Author^ and the Grounds of it 5 
and my Defgn in piiblijhing in our la^iguage 
this Specimen of his Works ^ that as a tafte // 
may whet the readers appetite after the reft of 
them : of which therefore it will be proper to 
give here afjort Account. 

The pious Author propofed to himfelf one. 
principal Defign in his Studies -, in the Exe- 
cution of which he employed moji a?id the bejl 
years of his life^ and laid out on it the talents 
God had enriched him with — a great Saga-* 
city, ^/J^/W Judgment, and an indefatigable 
Induftiy, and all thefock of ujefid Knowlege 
he had acquired by the prudent ufe of thefe. 
This Defign was^ to illuftrate the New 


Testament, not barely by Jhewing thefenfe 
mid meaning of thofef acred writings , but alfi 
the grandeur andmajejiy of the Sentiments, and 
the dignity afid beauty of the Expreffion in a 
Stile venerably fimple a?id delicately affeBing. 

For this pw'pofe^ he judicioufiy obfervedy a 
correifl Copy of the f acred writings was necef- 
fary in the fir fl place: which he accordingly 
prepared for himfelf, by 7nany years fiudy in 
examining and digefting into order (which he 
has done with a clearnefs and hcility that could 
fcarcely have been hoped for) the vafi colleBions 
ofhispredecejjors, efpecially Dr, MilVs, and his 
own from MSS, which they had notfeen 5 and 
publiped it for the benefit of others at Tubing 
A\ 1734, in %%j!^ pages in 4'° (of which the 
"text takes up ^t^ii) 'with the following title : 

TAMENTUM GR-3iCUM, ita adomatum ut 
Textus probatarum editionum medullam, 
Margo variantium leftionum in fuas clafles 
diftributarum, locprumque parallelorum de- 
le6lum, Apparatus fuhjunBiis crifeos facrse, 
Millianac prsefertim, compendium, limam, 
fupplementum ac fruftum exhibeat; infer- 
yiente fo, Alberto Bengelio. 


The fame year he publified, at Stiitgardy 
an 8'° Edition of the Text and marginal 
VARIOUS READINGS and parallel places^ but 
without the critical Apparatus : which I have 
not been able to procure^ though dejirous to have 
it as a Curiojity in its kind, as having but one 
error of the prefix viz^ a wrong accent on the 
word i^ocKs^onxvy I Cor, xvi. 5, vid. Gnom. in 
locum. He had alfo begun a fecond S''* 

edition^ entirely the fame ^ in the Text, with 
the two former y but a little different in the 
Margin as to the Greek letters oi, p, y, ^, £, 
one of which in all his editions he puts after 
each various reading to fgnify his approbation 
or difapprobation and the degree of it f^ the 
hefty £ the worjl, y doubtfid) ; fome of which 
are here alter d^ efpecially y into |3 or ^, after 
1 8 years time for farther enquiry. He did not 
live to fee this finifbed. It came out at Tzibing^ 
A\ 1753, in ^g 5 pages. In the preface 

to this 3'' edition he mentions a I'reatife he had 
by him ready for the prefs and would foon pub- 
lifhy viz. CLAvifcuLA N. Test. Grjeci 
ex iteratd hacce recognitione editi^ quae et 
generalia fundamenta crifeos N. T. ita repe« 
tit, ut noviflimas exceptioncs prascidantur, t^. 


ad mxAt^fngidatim loca N. T. refiduis unius 
alteriufve eruditi viri oppofitionibus fafisfacit, 
alienafque corrediones, meafque curas ulte- 
riores adjicit. / am but very lately informed 
that this trcatife is printed^ and has been fold at 
London : fo that I have not yet had an oppor^ 
tunity offeeijig a work the title of which and the 
charadler ofifs Author raife my expeBatiort 

The next tlmig to be done was to comtnuni-^ 
cate the Obfervations he had for many years 
been making on the Scriptures of the New Tef 
tament, But^ in order to avoid interruptions 
and digrefions in that work^ and to attain in 
it the utmoji Brevity^ of which he is ever ftudi- 
cus that the attention of the reader may not be 
diverted from the I'ext itfelf \ he put the ge^ 
neral things^ that related to many particular 
texts^ into two fmall Treatifes ; the iirft of 
which is a new Harmony of the Evangeliftsy 
which he wrote in High Dutch a?id publifed 
at T^ubing A\ 1736, in 'i()o pages in 8'* with 
this Hitle 

II. JoHANN Albrecht Bengels richtige 
Harmonie der vier &c: /. e. An exacl Har- 
mony of the four Evangelists, in which the 

P R E F A C E. vii. 

Sijioryy the Works and the Words of Jesus 
Christ our Lord are difpofed in their proper 
natural Order, for confirmation of the truths 
and for exercife and edification in piety : by 
John Albert Bengel. With a Preface &c. 

The fecond of thefe two is the Chrono- 
logy, not only of the New^ but alfo of the Old 
T^efiamenty nay of all ages ^^Sifrom the Cre- 
ation^ and future //// the end of time : afingu- 
lar and furprifing work, and well worthy of the 
Attention both of the pious and of the learned; 
which was printed at Stutgard A\ ij^iy in 
/^^i pages in 8'*, entitled 

IIL ]q. Albert! Bengelij Ordo Tempo- 
rum, d Principio per Periodos oeconomiae 
divinse hiiloricas atque propheticas, ad Finem 
ufque ita deduftus ut tota Series & quarumvis 
Partium Analogia fempiternse virtutis ac 
fapientiae cultoribus ex Scripturd veteris et 
novi T'efiamenti^ tanquam uno revera docu- 
mento, proponatur. 

But before this lafi mentioned book he thought 
it proper to publijh his Expofition of the Re- 
velation, becaufe in the Introduction to it 
(which is the enfuing I'raB) he had eftablifhed 
a main principle of his Chrofiology^ efpecially 

vlii. PREFACE. 

of future times : which he did accordingly y A", 
1740 at Stutgard in 1 162 pages in 8'" under 
the following T'itle, 

IV. Erklarte Offenbarung &c, /. e. 
An Exposition of the Revelation of. 
St, John, or rather c/' Jesus Christ, tran- 
i[2.ttdi from the original 'Text revifedj opened l?y 
means of the prophetical Numbers ^ and offered 
to the coniideration of all that regard the 
Work and the Word of the IjORB, and defre to 
he rightly prepared yir thofe Occurrences that 
are near at hand: by John Albert Bengel. 

The Author himf elf (in §.177 of his Abrifs^ 
^c, to be fpoken of by and by) 77ientions a 1^ 
edition of this work^ A"' 1 746 ; in which he 
has brief y confuted the Moravians Mifapplica-^ 
tion of the excellent things f aid of the Church of 
Philadelphia to the Church of the Brethren as 
they call it^ and the perfevering cppofition they 
make to the right ufe of the Revelation^ in p. 
1163— 1172. But thefe i o pages feem^ by their 
numbers following im?nediately after the laft 
(viz, the 1 162V page of the Booky to be a 
feparate Appendix not interwoven into the body 
of the work 'y the 2^ edition of which y as it con- 
fijis of the fame number of pages as thefirf^ one 


*would think JJdOuld not differ from it but in that 
Appendix, Yet I was wiUi?ig to fee it^ and it 
is near a twelvemonth ago that a German Book- 
feller at Lofidon was employ d to get it for me : 
but I have not feen it yet, I had patience with 
another of them two years in procuring me fome 
other of our Authors works-, and at lajl had 
them by other means. This diffculty or ncgli'- 
gence I cannot account for : but it accounts for 
fome defeBs of my narrative. 

The laft Fart of the Work, and to which 
the reji were preparatory, was a continued Se- 
ries of Obfervations or Annotations on all the 
books of the New Teftament. It was printed 
at Tubifig A\ 1742, in 1208 pages in 4'% 
with the following Title y 

V. Gnomon * Novi Testamenti, In 
quo, ex nativa verborum vi, Simplicitas, 


* The Author's Defign being to point out in the briefeft 
manner the Emphafis, the Beauty, the Method of the Text, 
without taking off the reader's attention from the Text itfelf ; 
he would have called it an Index of the N. T. But being pre- 
vented the ufe of a metaphor taken from that Jinger with 
which we point at any thing (common ufage having affixed a 
different meaning to Index when fpoken of a book) he bor- 
rowed one from that part of a Sun-Dial that points out the 
Hours, and from thence call'd his work a Gnomon to the 
N. Tcft, 


Profunditas, Conclnnitas, Salubritas fenfuum 
cseleftium indicatur, o^tviJo^AlbertiBengelij. 

These are the fever al Parts of his princi- 
pal Work, viz^ That oiz the New T'eflamejtt: 
of which I have given no larger an account than 
jufl to inform the Reader of the general defign of 
them ; having reflrained my firong inclination 
to give them fever ally their due praife, that I 
might not anticipate his pleafiire in finding them 
of much higher value than he can conceive from 
any thing I have f aid of them. 

As to his fmaller Works: — he publifhedy 
before any of tlie above-mentioned^ 

1. St. Chrys OS Tom's Dialogue on the 
Priesthood, in Greek and Latin, with Notes, 
at T^ubing, A\ 1725, in 518 pages in 8'°. 
In the preface to this is his Prodromus Novi 
Teftamenti GrtJeci re6te cauteque adornandi, 
or Propofals for printing the above-mentioned 
critical edition of the Greek N, Tefiament, And 

2. Gregorij Neoc^sariensis Pane- 
gyric u s : which I have not feen. 

As // is impofjible the fame work fJooidd uni- 
verfally pleafe men of oppofite opinions andtafles-y 
our Author was, after puhlifhing the N. Tefi. 
attacked by two different forts of writers, fome 


nccujing him of over-caution a?id timidity in 
admittifjg the various readings of the MSS, 
which differ from the common editions^ and o- 
thers of too great forwardnefs and temerity in 
receiving them : a good proof that he really 
went in the right middle way avoiding both ex- 
tremes. He vindicated himfelf againji both in 
two Dissertations. I can add nothing 
to what he fays himfelf concerning fome occa- 
sional Pieces, iii §. iv of the eiifiiing Pre- 
face : nor can I tell whether his German 
Translation of the N. Test, mentionedin 
§. III. of the fame has been publijhed. And 

it little concerns our piirpofe that in \yi^ he 
gave an edition of fome Part of "Tullys works. 
3 . B u T ^ fmall Piece which he had written y 
>4^ 1743, at the requeji of feveral friends who 
were earnejlly defirous to have his opinion of 
Coimt Zinzendorf and his Herrnhuters^ vizy 
XX Remarks on the Church of the Bre- 
thren fo called — this fmall Piece ^ I fay^ is 
more worthy of our Notice ^ as it gave occafion 
for his publijlnng afterward a more confiderable 
work, vizy a larger a?2d fuller account ofthefe 
people. 'T'he Remarks were not inte?tded for 

xii. PREFACE. 
the piiblick view; kit the Leaders of the Mo- 
ravians (for the Count and his people pretend to 
that Name^ and are commonly fo called among 
us) having got a Copy of them^ at a Synod 
which they held at Marienborn^ the Count wrote 
his Obfervations on them^ and publijhed both 
together, Bengelitis^ otberwife uf fully employ^ 
ed^ and ever averfe to the dif agreeable ofice of 
difputing [that is, mofly of laying open that 
chicane which many difputants artfully make 
vfe of in order to prevent a controverfy from 
being determined) declined publifhing any thing 
more about the Moravians, 'till a fcandalous 
report being propagated that he approved the 
New-mor avian Scheme, or at leaf had engaged 
himfelf to publip nothing more concerning ity 
and finding the frequent Variations and new^ 
modellings of it were in a continual progrefsfrofn 
had to worfe^ he determined to digefi in order 
his obfervations and reflexions of many years on 
the Moraviajis and their Caufe, and lay them 
before the world. Accordingly he publijhed them 
at Stutgard A\ 175 1, adding as an Appendix, 
the afore-mentioned Remarks with the Count's 
Obfervations on them and his own Reply to 

PREFACE. xlii. 
tbefey andfome other occaiional Papers relat- 
ing to the fame fubjedt, The whole is contained 
in 550 pages in S''' (whereof the Appendix 
makes 96) under the following Title : 

Abriss der fo genannten Bruderge- 
MEiNE, in welchem &c. i. e, A Draught 
OF THE Church of the Brethren as 
they call it, in which their Do&ine is ex- 
amined and their Caufe tried, the Good and 
the Evil diflingidfhedy and particidarly Span- 
genbergs Declaration and the Ordinary's 
fliort and peremptory Thoughts are fet 
in a clear lights by John Albert Bengel. The 
Count was no fir anger to the CharaBer of our 
Author^ and, even when he wrote his Obferva- 
tions on the xx Remarks, prof effed a great Re- 
fpeB for him, faying among his Frieiids, * O 

* that this beloved f7tan woidd go on in this Ipirit 

* to give a cenfure of my writings and princi- 
^ pies \ to which our Docility might perhaps be 
' a better anfwer than an explication by words* 
He has now gratified this defire ; requiring, he 

fays, no fubmifjive Docility, but earneflly wifld- 
ing to be uffid, and ferioifly protefting that he 
writes this Draught in the fame fpirit, of 


charity and loije of the truth, as he wrote the 
Remarks, T^he Idea Bengelius had early form d 
if the Ordinary, and in which many years obfer- 
vationfill confirmed him, was, T'hat of a man 
who had a mind to do our Saviour afervice i?i 
fome extraordinary manner, and in whofe opin- 
ion a good defign and meaning well made ^11 
forts of methods lawful and fair. He believed 
that the young Count began in the fpirit: 
whether he believed the Ordinary ajtd his Bre- 
thren went on foy or in a new way ef their 
ewn, will plainly appear to the readers of this 
Draught : in the file and manner of which he 
expeBs that thofe who are throughly acquainted 
with the whole affair, and are impartial, will 
think he ought to have dealt more fharply with 
the Moravians -, and that thofe who are not, 
will judge he might have treated them more 
gently : and to the tafte of thefe lafi, who are 
hy far the greater number, be declares he has 
adapted himfelf though many of them may per^ 
baps think otberwife. 

Thus much may fuffice to give my reader a 
general Notion of the Nature of thofe Writings 
'which I would recommend to him, I hope to bis 


great benefit. As to the outward Circum^ 

Jlances of the Authors life^ I cannot gratify the 
reader s curiofity [for I have not been able to 
gratfy my own) with ajiy account of them. 

As to the prefent Work: f?ice the Revela- 
tion contains a Prophecy of the ft ate of the 
Chriftian Church through all ages ; it nearly 
concerns every Chriftian rightly to underftand 
ity in order to conduct himfelfin a manner fuit- 
able to the particular time he lives in, and to 
know in what part of the Prophecy that time 
isfpoken of ^he whole Exposition of 

the Apocalypfe is a very clear and well-fupported 
Interpretation of the Meaning and Senfe of the 
Prophecy^ and the enfuing Introduction to 
it fettles the proper Time of every event foretold 
in it : and from thence it appears that within 
54 years from this prefent time^ many and 
great Events'' and of the utmoft Importance to 
every living Soul^ efpecially to Chriftians and 
Jews, are to be expelled: fome of which cannot 
be far off, if they are not already begun. 
Let the People of thefe Nations take a fiber 
view of the prefent ft ate of their wordly affairs, 
and a fad andforrowful one of theftate ofK^- 

^ Sec §. VII. of the lad Seftion of the Condufion. 


ligion among us, where open and avowed Infi^ 
delity^ and its necejfary confequence a general 
Corruption of Manners, is daily fpreading : 
and then let them ferioujly bethink themf elves 
(thofe of them who are not fo intoxicated as to 
make a jeji of all ferious thinking) whereabout 
they are, and what they have to expedt. 

My looking upon thisfmall Treatife as a very 
feafonable Admonition to the prefent and to 
the rifing Generation, determined me to the 
choice of it as a proper Sample of the ufeful and 
edyfying Works of its Author. And lam there- 
fore the more forry that it Jhould come out fo 
much later than it was expelled and than I hoped 
and believed it would. I folemnly declare that 
I did not delay the publication of it fo much as 
one day in order to increafe the number of Sub^ 
fcriptionSy after there werefo many as to anfwer 
the purpofe mentioned in the Propofals, viz, to 
fecure me from being a lofer by the undertaking, 
I was indeed ready to put to the prefs all that 
I had promifed in my Propofals [viz, the 
Preface, the Introdudlion and the greater part 
tfthe iii^ SeBion of the Conclufion; which 
J computed would amount all together to 24* 

PREFACE. xvii. 

p^g^s] early in the Summer : but the Printer 

was obliged to wait more than four months for 

a new Letter (that I might exceed rather tbaji 

falljljort of what I had engaged for) thd ex- 

peBing it week after week. When at lajl the 

work was begiin^ an accident in his affairs^ 

for which he is no ways to be blamed^ occafioned 

a very fow prcgrefs in it at firjl, and much 

Jicknefs retarded it after. 

But perhaps the reader may have little caufe 
to complain of the Delay : fnce I have employed 
the leifure it gave me in adding (I hope^ for his 
benefit) a T^ranfiation of the V\ IF, remainder 
of the Iir, the IV^' andMlV" SeBions of the 
Conclufion, as alfo the Author sfhort marginal 
Notes on his new Tranfiation of the Revelation 
from the original T'ext revifed^ prefixed to his 
Expofition^ ofwhich they are a Summary, exhibit- 
ijig a general View of the Scheme andOeconomy 
of the Apocalypfe 3 all which bring the Book 
to the bulk in which it now appears, Aftd 
here I beg leave to take notice, fnce printijig 
by Subfcription has often been abufed to mean 
andfelfifhpurpofes, that this voluntary Addition 
is an incontefiable proof that no lucrative mo- 

xviii. P R E F A C E. 

tive /ay concealed under the pretence ^publick 
benefit which I gave as my priJicipal reafonfor 
puhlijlnng this T'reatife. Much lefs was I moved 
by any defire of Reputation : for in England 
no kind of writing does a man lefs credit than 
tranfating^ and in a work of this nature a faith- 
fid reprefcntation of the fenfe of the Author 
(which I hope I have given) in plain language 
is all that is necejfary ; oryiaments of ft He, the chief 
ground of a tranftators claim to honour, being 
moft wanted where the Senfe is of leaft Value, 

Pit COMB, in Somerfetfl/ire, 
April 1 8, 1757. 


Page X. line i. for intrude, read obtrude . — p. xxiii. I. 14. 
for has gone, r. has yet gone. — p. li. 1. 14. for cafe, r. 
caufi. — p. 85. 1. 19. for C. xviii. r. C. xvii. — p. 179. 1. 2. 
for left between them, r. left o-ver andabo"je them. — p. 227. 
1. 8. for again, with, r. again. With. — p. 283. 1. 2. for 
■ Revelation, r. relation. — p. 294. 1. 21. for Dr. Emiliane's, 
r. D'Erniliune's.—^. 305. 1. 16. for this, r. hii, — p. 324. 
for Though, r. Through. 




Exposition of the Revelation, 

The Contents. 

I. nr'h. 

§ I. ^ / 'HE Importance of the Re- 

II. "The Occafion of this Illuftration 

of it. 

III. The Parts of which it confefls. 

IV. Tloe Difference between this ajtd 

fome other wofks of the Author. 

V. The main D^iign of this, - 


("• ) 

§ VI. Six Sorts ^/Syftems of the A- 

VII. An Admonition concerning the 

Expojitiom that prevail at 
this Day. 

VIII. Hoe Ground of this prefent Ex- 

pojition. • 

IX. It's FuUnefs, and it's Relation to 

our Times, efpecially with 
regard ta the Roman Papacy • 

X. Ihe Author s Orthodoxy; parti- 

cularly as to the thoufand 

XI. Concerning the Determination of 

the prophetical Times. 

XII. Of praSiical Ufes. 

XIII. A necejfary hAmomtiony and an 

Anticipation of o\y]tdiiomthat 
might be made hereafter. 

XIV. 0/ /y6^ Stile. 

( iii. ) 

S XV. 72^ Conclufion, That the time 



* Deal boimttfully with thy fei'-vantSj 
that we may live and keep thy 

Open thou our eyes^ that we may be- 
hold wondrous things out of thy 

* PSAL. CXix. 17, 18. 

( iv- ) 


p'^rS'^UR Lord and Saviour Tesus 
^ )^ Christ, both before his Paf- 
fion and after his Refurrec- 
tion foretold many things to his Dif- 
ciples, and they again, in quaHty of 
his Apojiles^ to the faithful after our 
Lord's Afcenfiion; as may be feen in 
feveral places of the Holy Scriptures 
of the new Teftament, But among 
thefe we have only one Book that 
is wholly and expreffly prophetical:, 
which, for that very reafon, becaufe 
it Is the only one of the kind, is fo 
much the more confiderable. This 
is the Revelation of St. John^ or ra- 
ther the Revelation of Jesus 
Christ, which he fent to his Servant 
John, Rev. i. i. This Prophecy 

( V. ) 

(however little it may be regarded) 
requires the particular attention of 
the men of the prefent and rifmg 
generation. If any one then under- 
takes to contribute, to the right un- 
derftanding or the falutary ufe of it, 
fomething that has not perhaps been 
obferved before, he ought, whoever 
he be, to have one fair hearing, if not 
preferably to others, yet equally with 
them ; 'till it appears whether, with 
God's help, he can make good his 
Preteniions. I will explain myfelf 
on this head with Simplicity, Up- 
jightnefs, and Perfpicuity. 


After I had fpent a confiderable 
time on the Criticifm and Expofition 
of the Greek New Tejlamenty and, in 
the year 1724, was come as far as to 
the Revelatio7t\ I took in hand thi^ 

{ vi. ) 

part of Scripture very unwillingly, and 
my only motive for undertaking of it 
at all vi^as, that the work might not 
come out deficient in a principal part, 
having no Defign or Expedation of 
making any extraordinary difcovery. 
When I was come near the intended 
Conclufion, there opened unexpect- 
edly to my viev^ a Refolution of the 
prophetical numbers contained in the 
xiii'^ and xxi'' chapters, and of the 
great things there fpoken of. Now 
as I had not in tlie leaf!; before then 
been in fearch of this, fo I had no 
reafon to fhut my eyes againft the 
arifing light; I went on therefore in 
this track, and frequently found that 
one thing after another laid itfelf 
open to me. The Importance of the 
fubjeft and regularity of the work, 
' and my earneft defire to draw up a 

( vii. ) 

fatisfaftory Plan of the agreement be- 
tween the Prophecies and the Events 
(to the confideration of which I was 
awaken'd by the notorious tragical 
doings at JThorn, which fell out even 
in our own time, by which the quan- 
tity of blood formerly fpilt on the 
ground has been fomewhat increafed 
anew) induced me to communicate 
fome part of my thoughts to thofe 
who might in one way or other be 
affiftant to me, or whom I might ex- 
cite to a further purfuit after the 

Now the thing having fpread far- 
ther than I had thought or apprehend- 
ed; many perfons, learned and illite- 
rate, artful and iincere, Clergymen 
and Laymen, pious and vicious, peo- 

X The Maffacre at Thorn happened in the year 1724, of 
which a fhort account may be feen in Salmon's modern Hiftoay 
in the prcfent ftate of Poland, Chap, y. 

( viii. ) 

pie of leifure and of buHnefs, acquaint- 
ances and ftrangersj experienced and 
unexperienced, thofe who had before 
embraced other opinions, and thofe 
who began but now to enquire, of 
both fexes^ of all ranks and ages, 
imparted to me their thoughts (which 
were very various, partly favouring my 
Scheme, and partly oppofing it) moftly 
by word of mouth, often by writing, 
and fometimes too in print. This 
proved very ferviceable to me by 
putting me upon confidering many 
things more maturely, guarding them 
more carefully, and expreffing them 
more clearly. So, tho' the moft con- 
iiderable objedions ftruck not at me 
in particular, but in general at the 
fiudy of the Revelation, nay at the 
Revelation itfelf\ I continued to ad- 
here purely to the Word of God^ and 

(ix. ) 

went on without being difcouraged 
in meditating on it (I hope not fruit- 
leffly) as I do ftiil. Some friends 
though they did not mean that I 
Ihould delifl from this ftudy, yet de:- 
fired to reftrain me, and in a manner 
conjur'd me that I would pubUfh no 
part of it; but others urged me to 
publifh it refolutely and without de- 
lay. Thefe laft, as they found op- 
portunities, have imperceptibly pufh'd 
me on and even drawn out of me 
one thing after another before the 
Plan was come to due maturity. It 
was, I may prefume, the will of God 
that it fhould not be buried in the 
earth; and I adore his providence, 
who, by the courfe the thing has 
now taken, has eafed me of the bur- 

I ihould fpeak out, or keep filence* 

(X. ) 

In the mean time, as I intrude no- 
thing upon any man, fo neither do 
I decHne the labour of difcovertng 
what I know of thefe things, to thofe 
who hope for any benefit from them ; 
nay at hi^That became almoft indif- 
penfible, in order to obviate thofe no- 
tions which people afcribed to me con- 
trary to my fentiments. They have on 
this occafion had various conjedlures; 
but I affiire them that I know nothino; 
of any cabbala, of any divination, of 
any aftral influence, or any ghoft or 
apparition. The fource of fuch and 
fo very different opinions concern- 
ing a new difcovery of a7tcknt Truth 
is this, — that many do not underftand, 
or do not confider, how rich a trea- 
fare the Holy Scriptures are. I am 
nothing •, and if somewhat of the Truth 
has fallen to my lot, I found it in the 

( xL ) 

common way or high road to heaven, 
by fearching the PFof^d of God with 
fimphcity, and w^ithout any option 
of mine. This I diHgently laid up, 
and now exprefs it confcientioufly in 
proportion to the degree of Certainty 
I have of it, (which in the circum- 
ftantials is often fmall enough, but 
in the fubftantial part is, thro' God's 
grace, ftrong and clear) and modejlly 
offer it to examination. By fuch re- 
ftridions as thefe, by the affiftance 
of the Truth of God, I fhall limit 
myfelf in all that I advance, and 
therefore hope I Ihall not be reproach- 
ed, either before or after my death, 
for any thing that I fhall fay. 
In this manner there is here pro- 
pofed to all who are willing to receive 
it. (i.)The wholeTEXT o^xhtRevela- 

( xii. ) 

tlon in the German tongue, tranllated 
from the Greek, revifed in the way I 
did the whole New Teftament-ffome 
time fince, according to the moft 
approved Manufcripts. [Many 

people do not like new tranflations 
of all the New Teftament or all the 
Holy Scriptures; but allow a new 
tranflation of fingle books for an Ex- 
pofition of them, as for inftance 
Ghebard's twelve 7ninor Prophets: 
and this Tranflation oith.^ Revelation 
may ferve in the mean time for a fpe- 
cimen of a German Tranflation of 
the whole New Teftament which I 
have written a confiderable time ago, 
but don't think to publifli unlefs 
there appears a reafonable expedlation 
of more benefit from it than con- 

t Publiih*d 1 734 at Tubing in quarto, with critical notes; 
arid at Stutgard in oftavo, without them. 

( xiii. ) 

tcntion about it: in which cafe it 
jtiight come abroad accompanied 
with the neceffary Explanation of 
thofe turn$ of expreflion that will 
fometimes occur different from the 
German Idiom, l>ut efpecially with 
ufeful Illuftrations of the moft diffi- 
cult places, and edifying Annota- 
tions.} Why we Ihould read 
after this ot that manner in the ori- 
ginal Text, I have ihewedj:elfe where; 
and what great ftrefs ought to be laid 
upon a carefully revifed Text, eipe- 
cially in the Revelation^ may appear 
from its being in many places the 
principal foundation of the explana- 
tion. A fhort § Abftraa of the Ex- 
pofition is given on the margin of the 
text. (2.) The Exposition 

% In the quarto Edition mentioned in the laft note. 
§ See this after the Introdudlion, 

( XiV. ) 

at large, which confifts of three parts, 
Firft, in the IntroduSiio7t there is an 
'A7iaJyfts of the Prophecy in general, 
and that both of the Things and the 
'Times contained in it. After that 
follows a continued Expojition from 
beginning to end of the text; every 
verfe of which is repeated before the 
rcmarks upon it. In the Concluji- 
en will be added fome points that 
concern the Expolition in general. 
In my Latin Annotations on the 
New Teftament, entitled the:}: Gno- 
mon, which will be publifhed in due 
tim.e, there will be Notes on the 
Apocalypfe too : but this prefent Ex- 

X The Author In his Preface to the Gnomon (which was 
printed in quarto at Tubing 1742) gives a prudent reafon for 
his ufing fo uncommon a name, which it will be much to the 
|!)enefit of the rea^ders of that Book never to forget. 

( ^^- ) 

pofition is almoft every where different 
from them. As fome things f were 
more proper to be expreffed in Latin 

for the ufe of the learned in the lan- 
guages, and yet the fubftance of the 
matter might as well be deUver'd in 
the vulgar language for the ufe of thofe 
that are not fo ; I have accordingly 
difpofed of my Remarks in the one 
or the other of thefe Treatifes : each 
of which is indeed an entire one in 
its kind, yet it will be moft profit- 
able to read them both together. I have 
alfo heretofore publifhed in Literary 
yournals fome things relating to thiii 
Subje£t ; particularly, in the i oth 
part oi Alien und neicen aus de^n Reich 
Gottes^ what I call'd a J Plan or 
Draught : in the 23d part of Geijl- 

t Such as Criticifms on the Signification of the Origina! 
Words, the Phrafeology, ^vC. 
t Grund-Rifs. 

( xvi. ) 

Ikhen FamUj A |i Caution for good 
men : and in fome of the former 
|).arts, one or two § Declarations^ &q. 
for which tjie Editors of thofe Col- 
ledlions had given me occajG.on. But 
jToow in this German and the other 
Latin Treatife, all thefe are brought 
together, explained and compleated. 
After pubHcation of thefe two trea- 
tifes, I muft, and wilHngly do, fub- 
mitmyfelf to the Judgment of all that 
are fkilled in difcerning of Truth. 
The principal Defign of this Ex- 
pofition is this, — that That <?;^/k which 
is contained or implied in the Words 
of the Prophecy may be pointed out 
and clearly deduced to Edification ; 
biit not that every fort of Dodrineand 
Kefleciion wMch liich and fuch words 

Ij Yerwahrung guter Seelen. % Anzeige. 

( xvil. ) 

might fuggeft fliould, on occafioii 
of them, be produced, tho' good in 
itfelf. An over-eurious Inquifitive- 
nefs is not proper here, as it might 
feem to be to men of a warm imagi- 
nation, but only a becomingly accu^ 
rate fearch, which will approve itfelf 
to the attentive reader by the con- 
ftant harmonious agreement of all the 
points and all the manners of ex- 

In what manner the Interpretati- 
ons of xSx^AfQcalypfe have varied from 
the earlieji times of the Chriftian 
Church to our days; and hoWj amidft 
the frequent enlargings of the limits 
of the Time in confequence of thefe 
variations and of the manifeft mif- 
^reckonings, the Truth, like the Heart- 
blade or Spire in a plant^ has remained 

( xviii. ) 

unhurt; and how even the Fibres and 
Shoots of the right fenfe, that were 
torn off and fecreted, are found all 
together in an Interpretation now at 
length growing up to maturity ; this, 
I fay, is deduced and laid before yoa 
in the ""' Condujion. I prefume alfo 
that I am not fo unacquainted with 
the principal modern writings on the 
Revelation that it will be any great 
difadvantage to our Subjeft. All 

the Syftems we have of the Apoca- 
lypfe may be divided into thefe jix 
Clajfes:, of each of which I will fub- 
join one Example. 

I, Some go in a metaphyjical and 
theofophical way ; for inftance Tmo- 
theus Philadelphus. 

* Part 4th which is an hiftorical account of the feveral Ex- 
pofitions of the Apocalypfe, from the earlicft ages to the 
prefent times. 

( XIX. ) 

2. Most proceed in a htjlorical 
manner; and of thefe again fome reft 
in Generals^ as Mr. Chancellor Pfaff 
pf Tubingen* 

3. Some come X.oP articular s^ and 
refer moft things either to theHiftories 
of the Jews and Romans of tlie firft 
ages, as Herman von der Hardt ; 

4. Or have a view to the times 
of the Reformation^ as Jac. Koch ; 

5. Or they ftill wait for things to 
tome^ fo that according to therii even 
xh!tfeven Churches are only typically 
fulfilled, and of the reft not fo much 
as the Jirji Seal in any manner ; as 
Dr. Joachim Lange-^ 

6. Or they interpret the Prophecy 
concerning all thofe things, one after 
another, which have come to pafsy?//r^ 
Si. Johns time to this Day and what 

( XX. ) 

fliall farther come to pafs from hence 

to the e?id of the worlds as § Luther. 

Among fo many Expofitions as we 

have, it will be hard to find one that 

has in it but a fingle article of any 

confequence by which it is as different 

from thefe fix clafies, as they are from 

one another. In all of them, fome 

lay afide all Reckoning of the Times 

or Chronology^ and thus negledl a 

neceffary Datum for the Analyfis; 

others build their Analyfis on the 

prophetical Day, which they very 

erroneoufly take for a whole Year\ an 

Error that has of a long time been a 

great hindrance to many Proteftants, 

nptwithftanding their otherwife good 

caufe, yet is ftill very common in 

§ This mull be the Perfon meant by an ambiguous Expref- 
fion in the Original. At leaft, both Luther anfl Bengdius him-^ 
felf, are of this 6th Clafs. 

( xxi. ) 

England and Holland ; on the con- 
trary, many in Germany begin now 
to take the Times too fhort, and for 
the moft part according to the com- 
mon acceptation of the words, trowd 
almoft all, frqm the 4th even to the 
19th chapter, into the narrow fpace 
o{ three years a7ida /^^^ of calamitous 
times; and make the ipace before 
and after them fo large, that they 
would be at a lofs to refute any per- 
fon that would be fo extravagant as to 
put off thofe better days which they 
acknowledge and hope for, 'till feve- 
jal generations hence. 

In other points I dp not Ipend 
much time in refuting falfe opinions; 
only I look upon it as neceffary to 
examine the moft commonly read, 
moft celebrated and ncweft Interpre- 

( xxii. ) 

ta,tions5 and efpecially that which lays 
fo much ftrefs oti the lately mention'd 
three years and a half^ — as the prin- 
cipal Texts they are built upon come 
in our way: which is done with all 
modefty and fobriety % in the Intrg-^ 
DucTiON § XL, Lv, Lvi, lu the Com- 
mentary or Expojition on Chap. v. i. 
vi. 2, II. viii. I, 7. xii. 12. xiii. 1, 
(under the loth Thefts) 15. xvi. i, 
xvii. 8, ^c. See alfo the 11 1 and 
I v*^ Sedions of the Canchifion^ 


Both Extreams, one of which is 
grounded on the Day o{ ?iyear longy 
the other on a day of 24 hours^ with 
all the difficulties they lie open to, I 
avoid by the Calculation command- 

+ The Citations in the Original are not of the Texts, as here, 
butofthePagesof the book, [wit..] p. 104. 150. 318. 345* 
369, 408, 425. 619. 68-7. 734. ^12. 857. &c. 

{ xxiii. ) 

cd in the Text and not hitherto 
pradifed by others. This will, in the 
"f Or do Temporumy appear to be the 
chief Foundation of the whole Chro- 
nology of the Scriptures, and lead us 
on through all in the right (viz. well 
nigh in the middle) way^ chiefly by 
the Refohition of the Apocalyptical 
Times^ Of confequence the true in- 
terpretation of the things themfelves 
goes on likewife in the middle wav, 
between the other interpretations, in 
a direft and fure road in which no 
body has gone wrong, and where we 
fee ourfelves at no great diftance from 
others on both fides of us. The prin- 
cipal Mean indeed in rightly interpret- 
ing the Holy Scriptures, and elpecial- 

t Or do Temporum{a. fmallbook 0^ Chronology f of 440 pages 
Oftavo in Latin) was publilh'd at Stutgard, 1 741 . This and 
the Author's Nei': Tejiam^ and Gnsmm may be had at London. 

( xxiv. ) 

ly the prophetical parts, is the gift of 
the divintGrace. Yet, under that, the 
Knowledge of Languages, Hiftory, and 
the hke is of fervice. Many have a 
little of one of thefe and nothing of 
the other ; and truly one may obferve 
a kind of antipathy between thefe two 
forts of perfons ; but that is not the 
fault of the thing, but of human Im- 
perfedtion. 1 am contented to be 
efteemed inferior to every one of ei- 
ther fort; yet hope withall that in 
both together I fliall not be found 
utterly fruitlefs. For in the way we 
are in, we may confider iitvijible 
things, both good and bad, and alfo 
the- vtjible (or natural, civil and 
church hiftory) and regularly difpofe 
of, both what is paft and what is to 
come, not only in general but circum- 
ftantially, in its courfe through the 

( XX¥, ) 

fcveral centuries one after the otlier. 
For which reafon it is to be hoped 
that thofe who make themfelves well 
acquainted with the prefent Expofi- 
tion, will be able to pick out of all 
others the beft parts, and alfo reduce 
to its proper place in the Prophecy 
every thing that occurs in Hiftory and 
aftually has come to pafs fince St» 
John's Days, as fome part of the 
ihittgs that Jhould be thereafter^ chap. 
i. 19. 

Some perhaps will think I ought to 
iiave explained at large and circum- 
ilantially only what belongs to the 
frefent time and not have faid much 
about the reft\ that fo the former 
might the more readily have catch'd 
the -eye of the reader. But in the 
manner I have proceeded, T^at fart 


( xxvi. ) 

will be eafiily found out by any body 
that will turn to the xiii'\ xvir' and 
xviii''' chapters. But then thefe chap- 
ters are clofely conneEiedwixh the reji: 
the Analysis therefore muft take in the 
whole. Befides, what has no beauty 
to one may be very ufeful to another. 
At an Entertainment, one is not to 
accommodate himfelf wholly to the 
palate of any fingle gueft, however 
worthy; and therefore he provides 
Variety, and leaves every one to chufe 
what he likes. However it is indeed 
in a particular manner neceflary for 
thefe our times that men regulate their 
conduct by the contents of the im- 
portant Chapters juft mentioned. At 
leaft the hitherto openly maintained 
Apocalyptical Teftimony of the Re-- 
formers againft xhdPapacy and Romey 
ftands firm and unfhaken: and by 

( xxvii. ) 

rlrtue thereof, on mature conlidera- 
tion of the Thefes in the Expojition 
of c. xiii. I, of the laft remarks on 
c. xvii. 3, and thofe on ven ii, &c, 
this matter may be moft evidently de- 
cided, with the approbation of all 
men of folid fenfe in the following 
manner ; viz, — They are wrong in 
this matter i, Who eagerly interpret 
every text, if it but founds frightful- 
ly, of the Pope and Rome. 2,''^ Who 
make no diftindlion between xhtBeaJi 
and theWhore of Babylon. 3 ,^^y Who 
interpret the Beafi to be Ibme invifible 
power that is an enemy to men. 4,'^'^^ 
Who thereby underftand either the 
Heathenipy or the antient Chrijlian^ 
Romany or the Roman-German Em- 
pire. 5,''^' Who begin the times of the 
Beaji fo far back that they include in 
them the moft excellent Bifhops of 

( xxviii. ) 

Rome in antient times. 6/^^'' Who fo 
fix their eye on the Papacy in its pre- 
fent ftate, as if what is prophefied of 
that fingular Antkhrifi^ fo called, 
were not yet wholly to come hereaf- 
ter. 7/''' Who do not difcern that 
the right expofition of the Prophecy 
miakes a decifive Difference between 
this Papacy and the Proteftant 
Churches, in which though in other 
lefpedts, alas! too much divided, ne- 
verthelefs they enjoy many privileges. 
On the other fide the three following 
Pofitions are agreeable to truth, i. 
The Beafi rifing out of the fea is the 
Hildebrandine Papacy \ and Babylo?t 
i« the City or State of Kom^^ and con- 
fequently, in and along with that, 
the Church of Rome now fo degen-- 
erated from her antient purity. The 
difference between them is great, fee-^ 

( xxix. ) 

mg many Catholicks are zealous for 
tie Church of Rome and it's plaufible 
pre-eminence, who yet bear no good 
will to the Papacy, ii, The Beafi 
riling out of the bottomlefs pit is that 
lingular Antkhrifi fo called, an In- 
dividual, under whom the Papal pow- 
er, which owes it's growth to fo ma- 
ny innovations, will be more mif- 
chievous than ever, in, Not only a- 
gainft them who worfhip the Beaji 
out of the bottomlefs pit^ but alfo ia- 
gainft them who before that time 
worfhip the Beafi out of the Sea^ is 
That Threatnifig pronounced, which 
is the greateft in all the Scriptures, 
and w^hich Ihall refound powerfully 
from the mouth of the third angel, 
Revel, xiv. 9, 10, ii» 

( XXX. ) 

:^nD tl)e tl)iri) ange! foUotbeD 
t\^tm, fapins tuitl) a louD t)oice, 
^f anp man toorfliip tl)e beafi 
anD })ts image, anU receilje Dis 
mailt in !)is; foreJ)taD, or in i^isi 
!)anij, X^e fame Cball Drinfe of 
t!)e tBtne of ti)t toratl) of (Boh, 
lD!)ic!) is poureD out t»itl)out 
mixture into tl)e tup of l)is im 
tjignatton; anb \tt ftall fte tor- 
mented toif]^ fire anD brfmttone 
int{)e prefence of t|)e!)olj>ansel0> 
anU in t))t prefence of tl)e 
5lamb : ZnU t\)t fmoKe of t!)eir 
torment afcenOeti) up for eijer 
anD ei}er : anD tl)ep |)at)e no reft 
Dap nor nigl)t, t»t)o toorftip tl)e 
ijeafl anD f^is image, anD toljo- 
fot^er receiijetl) tl)e marfe of i^is 

( xxxi. ) 

I MAKE it my ftudy to keep dole 
to the plumb-line, as it were, of the 
Truth, not only in the articles of 
Faith, but alfo in all the other points 
that are prophetical, even in my Ex- 
preffions : and particularly I have, 
in the Expofition of the xx'' chapter, 
declared the foundnefs of my fenti- 
ments with regard to the true and 
the falfe notions of the Millennium. 
The bare mention of a Millemnu77t 
now no longer raifes horror or aver- 
fion among men of underftanding. 
In the fourth Sedion of the Conclufion 
will be adduced ten Pojitions long 
fince eftablifhed ^ the laft of which, 
concerning the prefent fubjeft, has 
an indiffoluble connexion with the 
former nine. 'Tis true human au- 
thority has little weight in the Cafe ; 
but whoever relifhes old better than 

( xxxii. ) 

n€W things, let him here conlidcr 
ferioufly that the firft nine of thefe 
PojG.tions are to be found all together 
in the excellent Luther \ and the 
tenth was unanimoufly acknowledg'd 
in the moft antient times, and even 
at this day does not meet with any 
confiderable oppofition, though there 
are here and there fome few who 
will be the laft to affent to the truth 
in this point. My whole Expofition 
is conformable to and guided by thefe 
Fofitions fo that no Expofitor is Icfs 
liable than I am to be fufpefted of 
Novelty^ if any ftrefs is laid upon that. 


In a difquifition of this nature one 
cannot leave out the Chronology or 
Determination of the times without 
being deficient in a principal point ; 
t>iat he can never be too caudous in 

( xxxiii. ) 

his manner of propoiing it. If I had 
not already let fo much of that mat- 
ter come abroad, and yet could have 
forefeen how few make a right ufe of 
it ; I would have dealt more fparing- 
ly in it. Now I cannot draw back : 
but I have all along fo often pro- 
tefted my Caution and Modefty, that 
I am afraid it will be irkfome to can 
did Readers; and on the other fide, J 
hope that whatever happens no man 
fhall be able to reproach me juftly 
with having mifs'd my aim. Three 
different Parts then concur here to 
make a complete Expofition ; i. The 
literal or hifiorkal Interpretation it- 
felf ; 2. The Refolution of the pro-- 
phetical "TimeSy where is fhewn what 
is the proper length of each of them; 
3.. The ConneBling of determinate 

( xxxiv. ) 

parts of the hiftory of paft times and 
of future occurrences with particular 
Years, Months, &c. This third part 
will be deemed the moft liable to 
miftakes, . efpecially in what we look 
upon as foon to come. But if thofe 
times, for example, w^hofe end we 
have deliberately and of purpofe not 
exprefTed '//// the Conchijion of this Ex- 
pofition, and ^^then but conjeSiurallyj 
fhould end later, or even fooner • 
iieverthelefs the wholo, Jirji Point ftands 
firm, namely the hijlorical Expofaion 
of the xiii'' and xvii'' chapters ; and 
t]i^fecond point will alfo remain un- 
hurt, viz. The Refolution itfelfx£ the 
prophetical "Times^ and confequently 
the whole of the I NTR O D U C- 
T I O N ; in which I have taken great 
care to treat of the times wholly in the 
AbJiraSi^ and do not in the leaji refer 

( XXXV. . ) 

any of them to any certain Year, nor 
fo much as in one inftance to any 
part of Hiftory. Now, he who, 
becaufe fome one co?tjeBure may 
fail, fhould haftily and eagerly 
drive on, and rejeft not only that 
part of the Conclujion^ but alfo every 
thing elfe both in the Expojition and 
IntroduSiion^ would do violence and 
wrong to the truth, to his own lofs. 
Some may fay, Would it not havebeen 
better to have let alone all Conjec- 
tures, and ftuck only to Certainties ? 
To which I anfwer. He that can \vl 
this cafe take precifely the one with- 
out ajiy part of the other, fhall have 
my full Approbation. ' But could the 
Fathers under the old Teftament ex- 
ercife their Faith and longing Expec- 
tation of the MeJJiah in fuch a man- 
E 2 

( XXXVl. ) 

ncr that they muft t i^t alone all 
Coniedures about the Time when f 
Let one only promife a child fome- 
thingj prefently comes the eager quef- 

'X We know from \?et.\. \\^ that they did not. 
; The Reader AVill, I hope, indulge me in a ihort DigrefTion 
to point out an Inference which feems naturally deducible from 
the Words of the Text now fallen in our way, i Pet, i. lo, 
11,12; as I am not aware that it has been obferved, and it 
relates to a Queflion of great Importance, To the Prophets 
fwho prophejied of the Grcfte of GoD towards the Chriftians, it 
was REVEALED that thefe Blefiings did Tiot belong to their own 
Times but to a then future Time. But nvhat Time nvasfg- 
mfed by the Spirit of Chrift in them teftifying before -hand 
the Sufferings 0/ Chrift a- J the Glories after them^ was not 
REVEALED to them ; elfe they needed hot to \i2cvtfcarched for 
jt. Now "Mhere could they fearch but in the njcry Wc^-ds of 
the Prophecies delivered by themf elves from the Spirit 'f Chrift 
in 'them tefiifingt ^cJ But if thefe IVords were of their oiutz 
chujhig to expref^ the Ideas or Notions they were infpired with ; 
it was in vain to fearch for any Notions, implied in or deduci- 
ble from them, other than what they tiiemfelves intended to 
convey by them and which confequently v/ere revealed, be- 
cante well knonvn to them. They knew then that the Words 
they /poke or it'>-c/f had a more extenfive Meaning than they 
themfelvesj^^:/ apprehended, and implied things ^f/ unkn-nxj» to 
th^m and likely to be found out by fearching. Therefore 
the Words were fiot theirs ^ but thofe of the Spirit of Chrift in 
t^tm teftifying, ^c. that is to fay. The very Words, in which 
the infpired Writers fpoke qr nvrote their Revelations, were 
divinely inspired. 

( xxxvii. ) 

tion, When? and if this queftion is 
iiot anfvvered, many conjedlures arife, 
and no body thinks it needful to 
reftrain him. Let us only propofe 
and receive the Truth as the Truth, 
and Conjectures as Conjedures. If 
any of thefe don't fuit, in That Par- 
ticular \^tx\\^Co7ttraryof it be received 
as a Truth : which however would 
not have fallen (o readily under our 
obfervationj if it had not been for 
that fame Conjedure. And this I 
think is a fair apology for Conjectur- 
ing. But if any one of them 
{hould prove to be right, let That be 
reckoned as a Truth; and thereby 
the Truth will be greatly confirmed 
in other points too. I intreat my 
Reader to remember this faff age here- 
after^ wherever there is occafw7t ; that 
if any body piakes objedions that arc 

( xxxviii. ) 

iiereby anticipated, there may be no 
need every now and the7^ to refer him 
hither again. 

. If any one is in great expedation 
of pradical ufes, he will not be entire- 
ly difappointed ; tho' I am not very 
copious on that head. A Phyiician 
cures his patient not by talking, but 
by doing. We may pj^opozmd the 
Word ot God to one another profita- 
bly in ptiblick difcottrfes or writings ; 
but apply it particularly only in clofer 
converjatioit : nay, one that is watch- 
ful over his foul can beft apply it to 
his own ufe in private, by the aid of 
the Spirit of Grace. Every one ought 
to propound for the common benefit 
what is given him ; and that too, juft 
as it is given him, Rom. xii. 6, 7, 8. 
I defire not to impart to others any 

( xxxix, ) 

thing of 7ny own\ but to point out td 
them only what is contain'd in the. 
Scripture itfelf, and That is alv/ays 
accompanied with a falutary power. 
An Expofitor, as an Expojitor^ ('tis 
another matter when one is proving 
or exhorting) is Hke a man digging 
a well, who needs not himfelf throw 
any water into the fpring, but only 
contrive that it may run thro' a chan- 
nel and pipes into the veffels, without 
wafte, ftoppage or foulnefs : and thus 
he and others come at plenty of wa- 
ter. Many make a wrong ufe of 
a multitude of pradical Obfervations : 
they grow weary of them, and then 
let them all pafs unheeded : When a 
reproof or a comfort is particularly 
fuitable to any one, his confcience 
will be awakened or his heart fortified 
by it, when propofed to him in a ge- 

( xl. ) 

neral manner. Faith, Hope and Clia-^ 
rity, when there is any food for them 
on the way, quickly find it out. It 
would be in vain to prefs a full Soul 
to eat and drink ; that would only 
tend to deftroy his appetite altogether: 
but a hungry and thirfty man is glad 
when fgmething is fet before him, 
and takes to it prefently. Likewife 
tho' what in reading we apply to our- 
felves may not ftrike fo fenfibly and 
forcibly as a pailionate difcourfe that 
is immediately direded to us ; yet 
both are efficacious, each in it's own 
way. I don't mean by this to dero- 
gate from any man : I only inform 
you of my manner of writing. Yet 
fometimes I come in unexpededly 
with something roujing : let him that 
is foUicitous about pradical Ufes of a 
right fort, carry this along with him 

( xli. ) 

till he comes to fuch another pafTagCo 
If in the interim he meets with many- 
things that appear to be leaves with-- 
out fruit, let him but wait till he has 
got a comprehenfive view of the 
whole and he will find the fruit 


I WISH every man might take all 
things juft as they are offered to him, 
and in the moft important places 
would alfo weigh the words with ex- 
actnefs. Thus the whole would be 
profitable to every one, and do no 
man any harm. Sometimes I make 
a Remark that riiay appear obvious 
and indilputable, and therefore fu- 
perfluous ; yet it may be put there 
to obviate an error, or prevent a mif- 
take. Thofe that have x^^A fever al 
Expofitions will often perceive the 

( xlii. ) 

reafon for fuch or fuch an Admonl-^ 
tion or Caution; others may fafely 
kt it alone. Sometimes I propofe in 
cautious expreflions Thoughts not 
yet full ripe; which however by be- 
ing difcovered, may give a fair oc- 
cafion the fooner and more adequate- 
ly to bring to light the falutary Truth 
that is near at hand, but ftill hid. 
See for example C. ii. 25. xv. 3, 4. 
I cannot afk every one to read the 
whole : every one is welcome to judge 
of what he reads in a right manner, 
and underftands. To him that ca- 
fually glances his eye on fome one 
Thelis or other where there are fome 
unexpeded Particulars, which yet are 
confequences from the entire difcuili- 
on of the Point, it muft needs appear 
a little ftrange. But if he is a pru- 
dent man he will forbear, not only to 

( xliii. ) 

contradidjbut alfo to give his afTent. 
He, that contrary to St. Ja7nes\ Ad- 
vice,(C. i. 19) but after the way of fo 
many learned men, cannot conde- 
fcend to hear^ to read (where there is 
much to be read) to learn \ and is only 
fwift to f peak ^ to write^ to judge y or 
perhaps too, to Wrath ^ to Heat ; has 
here Materials enough to work upon : 
but let him be alTured there lies alio 
a Humbling block in his way. I do 
not afk my reader to be prefently of 
my mind in things where I myfelf 
went through many doubts before I 
could attain to Certainty : but let him 
alfo not be poUtive that where he is 
as yet doubtful no man elfe can be 
certain. A great many objedlions, 
as I have mentioned above, have 
come to my hands, enough with the 
anfwers to them to make a pretty 

( xliv. ) 

large Volume : fo that this work is 
by no means finifhed in a hurry ; but 
is fo contrived as to include all fuch 
objedions with their anfwers, in reali- 
ty, tho' without exprefs mention of 
them. Some few will be expreffly 
anfwered in the following /;^/r<;^//f^/^;^ 
§ LIU. Every point will be proved in 
it's proper place, altho' it may be al^ 
ledged or cited elfewhere without 
proof. On fuch occafions one muft 
be well acquainted in the firft place 
with the Text^ and then with the^r^- 
fer place of the hitroduEimt and Ex- 
fofittoft on each point : otherwife he 
may in due time be obliged to own 
that his objeilion proceeded from 
miftake and precipitancy. What is 
contained in this Expolition or can 
be fairly inferred from it, that I abide 
by. On the other fide let no man 

{ xlv. ) 

fufFer liimfelf to be drawn in to be- 
lieve that I have any where faid, or 
given ground for faying, any thing 
that has no relation to or connexion 
with this Expolition : but rather, if 
any one will charge me by word or 
writing with any thing abfurd, fcan- 
dalous, ufelefs, high-ftrained &c, 
contain himfelf fo long only as 'till 
he fhall have informed himfelf of my 
real fentiments; which I declare fo 
much the more freely, as I have 
found by experience that no caution 
is fufficient to prevent idle imputa- 
tions. I muft obferve one thing for 
the benefit of the publick. There is 
many a man that can find in his 
heart thro' ignorance, thro' vain glo- 
ry, out of wantonnefs, without the 
fear of God, without refped to the 
publick, to blacken his neighbour, 

( xlvi, ) 

aiperfe iiim, curtail his expreflionsj 
pervert his meaning, in a word, lye 
and calumniate, in his Remarks, Ob- 
fervations. Reviews, &c. and all this 
only becaufe he lives near a Prefs: He 
that is attacked in this manner, often 
knows nothing of it, or for certain 
reafons does not anfwer, or his an- 
fwer does not come out fo foon, or is 
not difperfed fo far. In the mean time 
others letthemfelves bebiafs'dby thofe 
v/ritings, extoll them, bawl and write 
after them, inflame yet others, un- 
happily oppofe the truth under a fa- 
natical conceit of Zeal for it, and de- 
molifli more than perliaps themfelves 
build in mxany years : and yet would 
be coniidered as Heroes and Pillars. 
O vainly learned World ! take Warn-^ 
ing my Reader ! I am content if thou 
believeft no good that any one fays of 

( xlvii. ) 

me, only beware alfo of admitting 
evil Infmuations. Hear what I my- 
felffay; and infpire others with the 
fame Caution. From them who fpeak 
in the fpirit of Truth, I accept of e- 
very corredlion or improvement with 
refpecft : yet nobody, I hope, will 
charge me with wilfulnefs, if I do 
not immediately, in complaifance to 
other people, retrad: this or that fen- 
timent which has oftner than once 
undergone an Examination and Re- 
finement in the long time it has lain 
by me. When I was attackt on oc- 
cafion of my Revijion ofth^ original 
facred "Text itfelf, I was oblig'd to 
make a fhort Defence more than 
once: but as to Expojitions (which 
people may form a right Judgment 
of when once they have a corredl 
Text) I jQiall fpend my time much 

( xlviii. ) 

more fparingly in Apologies and Vii>- 
dications ; efpecially if my opponent 
conceals his name, and befides pro- 
duces no Objedion but what is here 
anticipated or anfwered before-hand. 
On a neceffary Occasion I may give 
a fhort Anfwer, and perhaps publilh 
it in the "Tubing literary News. 


As toPerfpicuity; Unce my man- 
ner of Writing has appear' d to fometo 
be deficient in that refped, I have 
not only taken great care about it 
myfelf, (as I have already explained 
myfelf in the Preface to the Har- 
mony oftheEva?tgeliJls § ii. 35.§viii) 
but alfo every now and then laid the 
parts of the work, as I fmifh'd them, 
before fkilfuU Friends^ and profited 
by their advice. 

( xlix. ) 

Obscurity may arife from a vari- 
ety of Caufes, i/' from the Nature of 
theSubje&'s being fuch that the Illuf- 
tration of it depends more on labori- 
ous fearches and arguments of tedious 
deduction than on propofing of well 
known and already cultivated parts 
of learning, ii/'"^ From a Writer s 
Inability to exprefs himfelf clearly -y 
tho' for my part I am not ignorant 
of the requifites for Perfpicuity, and 
m reality I do^ I hope, moft times, 
and even this Moment, write clearly : 
and confequently can write clearly, 
iii/^^ Vvomxhtmoreorlefs clearKnow^ 
ledge and Certainty in an Expoiitor j 
who ought to ufe Exprejftons propor- 
tioned thereto : by which means he 
will likewifc give occafion to the 
ftarting of new Queftions in the minds 

of his Readers, the Solution of which, 
however, both he and they muft wait 
for 'till God pleafes. iv,'''^ From the 
honeji Carefuhefs of an Expofitor, 
who when any DifHculty falls in his 
way does not decline the labour of 
unravelling it; whereas he might have 
filently paft it over, without any per- 
fon's taking notice of it. v,'''' From 
a Loathnefs to detain himfelf with a 
a Multitude of Words andExpreflions, 
when a Multitude of Thoughts flow in 
upon him. vi,'^'^ From putting too 
muchtruji in the diligence and ability 
of every reader, vii,'^'^ From the 
Indolence of the reader^ who perhaps 
would fain take the thing at a Glance, 
and can fcarcely allow himfelf fo 
much time, to apprehend the mean- 
ing, or even to publifh a Recenfton 
or critical Review of a book, as he 

( li- ) 

muft fpend in reading or writing a 
paragraph in a News-paper : whereas 
a difcourfe whofe parts have all a clofe 
connexion with one another, let the 
method of it be ever fo plain and the 
expreflion ever fo clear, will yet re- 
main a very Riddle to every one that 
does not read the whole^ or does not 
read it right ^ or does not read it oftner 
than 07Ke. As to the above mention'd 
Plan or Draughty which appear'd 
fo difficult to fome (tho' not to all) 
there was,(viii,"''')a farther particular 
cafe of obfcurity. It was a fketch of 
an cxtenjGive and in fome degree new 
defign, whofe parts were varioufly in- 
terwoven w^ith one another ; and be- 
jGides, on mature conlideration I chofe 
not to give it in p7^int fo clearly as I 
had before imparted it to others in 
G 2 

( lii- ) 

writing in the Eajier-Thoughts fo 
Called. It was then high-time to 
publifli fomething for a teftirilbny in 
cafe of what might happen afterwards; 
but it was not proper to difcover allj 
lior is it yet ^ as to fo??te Points; but 
in the reji I have now made it, I pre- 
fume, plain enough, nay fometime^ 
plainer then many will like. He that 
is not fatisfied with all this, is at li- 
berty to read this Expojition or to let 
it alone. If he reads, he is iritreated 
to have patience with me, as I wa^ 
obliged to have patience while I wa^ 
labouring for his fervice. If any 
man has the gift of greater Perfpicliity, 
and can exprefs in an eafier mannei: 
thele very things which I lay before 
him ; I {hall, far from being difguft- 
fed, look upon it with pleafure. But^ 
to fpeak the truth, we are grown too 

( li"- ) 

nice, and delicate. Where there fe 
Poverty of Spirit and an Appetite for 
Truth, where This is regarded not 
only as food, but alfo as a Medicine ; 
there people- will not require every- 
thing to tafte fo fweet and prefently 
to melt upon the tongue, but will alfo 
fometimes receive and fwallow that 
which is even four, or bitter, and not 
ferved up in a lordly difh, and has 
liothing befides to recommend it but 
its wholefomnefs. How far thole 
who are fond of the mathematical 
method will find their account here, 
I cannot fay. I have made it my 
Bufinefs to bring cogent Proofs : tho' 
itisnotneceffary to put the fignatures 
of the feveral pofitions, throughout 
the whole courfe of the work, like the 
letters of the A. B. C. on the Keys of 

( "v. ) 

a Spinet. But enough of thefe ar- 
cumfiantial matters. 


An enlarged Heart, purified from 
fubtile Self-will, and v/hich acknow- 
ledges God in all his gracious Gifts, 
and praifes him for th^m, is not every 
man's Portion : yet it is particularly 
and highly requifite, 'till the uncom- 
mon but yet true, variegated and yet 
fimple Illuft ration of this incompara- 
ble Book, and which tho' not plaufi- 
ble, is yet fuitable to the divine Wif- 
dom, fhall make it's way thro' fo 
many Obftacles as it will meet with. 
Thofe that have been longeft exercifed 
about fuch things will be moft at a 
lofs when they meet with any thing 
uncommon. There may be two Per- 
fons fo different in their opinions, that 
it is impoffible they can both be in the 

( 1^- ) 

right ; yet both are convinced of their' 
being fo. Now each of them prefcnt- 
ly runs away with fomething (as it 
falls in his way) that he imagines he 
had made out before, gives fcarce any 
farther heed to the truth that v/ould 
awaken him, and falls afleep again 
over his formerly belov'd opinion. 
For the reft, fuch People will think it 
fufficient to fay, this or that remark 
(namely, where I do not differ from 
them) is a good one enough; but as 
to the main point they are greatly at 
a lofs. — IVew TVtne requires new Bot- 
tles. I do not mean by this to ob- 
trude myfelf upon any one. God 
hath taught me, from my youth up- 
ward, to have a view to him only ; 
and in the mean time I have under- 
gone fo many and (o various Judg- 
ments of Men, that as to matters of 

( Ivi. ) 

Confclence 'tis all one to me whether 
God andMa7i^ or God alQ7Wy approve 
of my doings. A thing is neither 
good nor bad in reality for meeting 
with the ready affent of many or few. 
A greater degree of knowledge av/aits 
Pofterity. To them much, that is 
now made little account of, will ferve 
for a foundation on which to build 
more ; much, that is now current, 
will no longer pafs ; and many proofs 
that, to moft mxcn, feem not fufficient 
now, will then be more than enough. 
In the mean time, if thofe who love 
the Appear aiice of Jefus Ghrijl find 
here veftiges of the Truth, they will 
join with me to praife the name of 
God, and help to procure the fupply 
of all my defedts out of the fuUnefs of 
Grace and Truth which is in Jefus 
Chriji^ for their own benefit and mine. 

( Ivii. ) 

The fame will be done by thofe who 
examine what is here laid before them 
with fervent Prayer, afliduous Medi- 
tation, and attentive Refleftion ; who 
bring it to a greater maturity by means 
of a greater light or more exacl know- 
ledge, and turn it to their own Ad- 
vantage with regard to Fait h^ Patience 
and Conjlancy. 

Here is now before you the Re- 
velation ILLUSTRATED, Men may 
pay what regard to it they pleafe ; 
but that Warning is ftill in Force, 
and at prefent in an emphatical fenfe, 

The Time is at Hand, 

Cati'vent of Denkendorfy 
Sunday, Sept. 4, 1 74Q. 




Of the Revelation, 


Bengelius's Introdudlion to his full Expo- 
fition of That Prophecy. 


Part I. Confiderations on the Reve- 
lation by itfelf. 

§. I. ^HE Book op a IS or cxplatm iff elf. 
II. A Table ^r Summary of it, 

III. We miifi not lay a?iy arbitrary Foimda^ 

tion to build an Expofition upon, 

IV. l^he Confideration of both vifible and in- 

vifible things mujl enter into a right 

( 6o ) 

§. V. VL Of the Centre a?2d Circum- 

ference in the main Vi^ 

Jion: T^hat many I'hings 

are propofed in a twofold 


VII. VIII. Of the Septenary or niim- 

her feven, efpecially as 
applied to the ChiircheSy 
Seals, "Trumpets ajidVials. 

IX. X. XI. The Beginning of the En- 
quiry, with the Trumpets, 
particularly with the three 
Woes under the three lajl 
Trumpets,— -and chief y the 
third Wo. 

XIL The Meaning of the feven 

Epifles, Seals, Trumpets 
andVials, asfiewn in § ii. 

XIII. That thefe are not feven Pe- 

riods of Time: 

XIV. XV. — but fourCircles or Spheres: 

XVI. -"—each of which has its in^ 

t7'vduBory Preparation. 

XVII. XVIII. The Order of the Text and 

the Completion of if, is 
fingle, or but one : 

( 6i ) 

§. XIX. — /ind /jeref beSimultzncum 

is occafionally €xplai7ied. 

XX. XXI. XXII. "The Divifion of the Sevens 
into Fours and Threes : 
and to isjhat the Foin'i 
and the threes relate. 

XXIII. A Gradation cr gradual 

Advance is difcernibk^ 
throughout the whole : 

XXIV. ^^particidarly at each fe- 

venth ; 

XXV. ^-Which therefore has ifs 

peculiar Preparation, 

XXVI. TheUk^nds, and yet Dif- 

ference, of federal Paf- 
fages of the "Text : 

XXVII. '^-from whence the fuitablc 

meaning of homonymous 
* Words is to he deduced, 

XXVIII. Of the Afpea or View which 

this Prophecy has to IfraeL 

Part II. Of the Application of the 
Prophecy to Hijlory^ in general. 

XXIX. This Application to hiforical 

Events is necefaiy, 

* Words having feveral flgnifications; as, AngeJ^ Heaven, 
Star, Sea, Head, Horn, Sec. 

( 62 ) 

§. XXX. 

— and has fe'^jeral Ufes in 

feveral Ages. 


The Toints that ought to be 

C07ijidered by us at this 

prefent Time. 


Four Conclujions deduced 

from them. 

Part III. Chronology; or, theReck- 
cning of the Times. 

XXXIII. XXXIV. This aljo is neceffary. 

XXXy. Great variety of Times 

mentioned i?t the T^exts^ 
luhich is a'Thifig of great 
Importance^ andon which 
much depends, 

XXXVI. 7he Numbers that accom- 

pany them muji be taken 

XXXVIL The Beginning of the Re- 

folution of thcniy viz,, 
at the three Woes a- 
gain (fee § ix J 

XXXVIII. XXXIX. /// thein ^the prophetical 

( h ) 

§. XL. — nori'sk a commonDzy. ^bhrb^ 
ly iiccejjary Caution concerningDr. 
Pete?^fe?is Syjiem, 

XLI. The Source of th Errors of the 

greatejl part ^Expoiitors. 

XLII. T^he "truth lies in the Middle, or 
between the Extremes, 

XLIII. By taking to our AJftJiance the Num- 
ber of the Beaft, we come to 
know nearly what the 42 pro- 
phetical Months are: 

XLIV. — and moreover ^ what a Chronos, 
a Kairos, Gff. are^ nearly. 

XLV. By the Help of the 1000 Tears they 
are more exadly deter7ni7id'^ and 
/'^r^ ^Proportion rtm?ii?2g thf^oiigh 
the whole ^ and alfo the Number 
feven are obfervable, 

XLVL Hereby we come fome^vhat nearer yet 
to the true length of the prophe- 
tical I'imes, 

XLVIL The 42 Mofiths and the Number of 
the Beaji are of the fame Le?igth, 
The Number Seven is obfervable 
in the Moiiths alfo. 

( 64 ) 

§. XLVIIL Jhe prophetical Month is proportion- 
able to a folar Months \being the 
1 2 th Part of a prophetical Tear] : 
and the 1260 Days of tlje Woman 
are prophetical Days, 

XLIX. T^he precife Lejigth of the threeWoes 
determined: as alfo that of the 
1260 Days of the Woman, 

L. A Septenary obfervable in the for- 

mer^ and a round Number \and 
alfo a Septenary] in the latter, 

LI. T!he Coincidence of Hifory with this 

Refohition of the T^imes is to be 
feen in the Expofitlon of the Text, 

LII. The near Determination [in §. xliii. 

xliv.) of the Length of a fingle 
prophetical Day, Month, Hour 
and Year maintained -, and the 
true precife Length of them is 
alfo fully fiewn : The Septenary 
and the Rotundity arifmg out of 
ity a7id the fo oft occur7'i?2g Num- 
ber 666 f are taken Notice of, 

LIII. An Objection aiifwered, 

LIV. The remaining Periods of Time are 
to he refohed in the Expoftion, 

( 65 ) 

§k LVi T'he above-mentioned four Spheres (in 

§. xiv. XV.) are hereby further con^ 

firmed : 
LVI. — and an Interpretation 'which is at^ 

prefent gaining ground^ farther op- 

LVIL I'ranfition to the Expofition. 


^kjJ^^HE Prophet Dajiielw^z commanded 
jm{ '^ k ^^fi^^^ ^^P i^^ "^^ords fpoken to him, 
k./«^"*5jtt{ and to feal the Book 'till the lajl Times, 
Ch. xii. 4. 9. On the contrary St. fohn, 2l 
long time after, v^-^^ forbidden to feal the words 
of the Prophecy revealed to him. Rev* xxii. 
10. Accordingly the Revelation, not- 
withflanding the wide Extent of its prophe- 
tical Contents, is yet fo contrived that the 
other Prophets ar^ not neceffary for the un- 
derftanding of itj but it is rather neceffary 
for the underftanding of them. This very re- 
gularly difpofed Syftem brings it's Key along 

with it; having, tho' uncommonly difficult 


66 Introduction. 

in it's Subjeft, a fingularly eafy Method, 
being provided with Variety of Partitions, 
Paufes, Forms of Expreffion, and fucb 
helps to an Analyfis of it. 

The whole Contents of the Book at firft 
fight appear to be naturally divided into 
three Parts: of which we will at prefent 
draw up a Table and bring the rQquifite 
Proofs of it hereafter in their proper places. 

They are 

\, The Title of the Book C. i. 1-3. 

2. The Addrefs or Direction of it 4—6. 

3. The main Point and Summary of 
the whole — — • 7, 8. 

^4. The glorious Appearance of Jefus 
Chrtjiy at which He 

1 . gives John his Commiflion, and 
orders him to write 9—20, 

2. excites the Angels of the Seven 

ChllrcheS"Q{Y.^^\yzi^x% and Smyrna 

and Pergamus ^ of Thyatira and 

Sardis and Philadelphia andLa- 

odicea, — to prepare themfelves 

worthilyfor his coming; and pro- 

mifeth to him that overcometh 

great things • — C. ii^ iii. 


Part i. §. n. ,67 

II. The DISCOVERT of things to ccme. 
Here are reprefented in one only and 
continued Viiion^ 

J. in general and at once, ALL POW- 
E R ^ in Heaven and on Earth given 
by Him that fitteth on the Throne 
to the Lamb^ by the opening of the 
Seals of the Sealed Book C. iv. v. 
The four firft Seals take in alhoijihle 
thiiigs to eaft and weft, fouth and 

north C. vi. 1—8^ 

And the laft three ^ the inviJJble: g&c. 
^hcfeventhy being the moft impor- 

I., has its proper Preparation — 

— — C. vii. 

2. exhibits the Silence in Heaven, 

the feven Angels with their 

Trumpets, and the much lur 

cenfe — C. viii. 1—6. 

[2. The particular EXECUTION ' of 

it 5 in which under thefefe'ven Augeh 

a This is a Reprefentation of the fohmn INAUGURA- 
TION of Jesus Christ into his Mediatorial KivgJum. 

^ This is the ftoperly prophetical F^krt of the book; con- 
taining //^^/'ro/»/^f-//V«/HisTORy of CZtZ/^'s Ai>mimstrai ion 
of this Kingdom, from the Time of his RefurreBion or Afcen- 
fan till he delivers it up to the Father ; or, the royc.l M A- 
NIFESTOof Jesus, declacing how he will deal wiih 
hi* Subje^s as they are rebellious or obedient. 


68 Introduction. 

and their Trumpets one after a- 
nother, the Kingdom of this world 
is gradually broken, till it reverts to 
and becomes the Kingdom of God 
and his Christ ; where are to be 

!i . the four firft Angels and their 
Trumpets — 7—12. 

.2. the three \iL{\: Angels with their 
Trumpets, together with the 
three Woes by the Locufts, the 
Horfemen, and the Beafl. 

13. ix. I &c. 
The Trumpet of the Seventh 
is of all the moft important, 
and with regard to it there is 
to be obferved 

/^i. the antecedently fworn 
Limitation of time, and 
the circumftantial ac- 
count of the certainly- 
future converlion of the 
great City, under the 
Trumpet of this Angel 
about the end of the 
third Wo. C. x. xi. 
^2. the Trumpet itfelf^ and 

Part i. §. ii. 69 

(i, 'Si Summary of the contents 
of it — C. xi. 15. 

2. the previous Thankfgiving 
of the Elders on account of 
the Completion 16—18. 

3. the Completion itfelf 19. 
And here 
.1. the Birth of the manly 

Son and theCafting down 
of the Arch-fiend from. 
Heaven xii. i— 12. 

the Oppofition on Earth, 
namely that hideous third 
Wo : and 

^ I . it was brought on by 
mea^is of 

1 . the Dragon xii. I2i>( 

2. the two Beafts xiii. 
2. Men in the meantime 


I. warned by three 
Angels xiv. 6 &Ci 

z. cut off by the Har- 
vell and the Vin- 
tage 14 &c. 
chaillftd and ftir- 
red up to Repent 
tancc by the feven 




Plagues or ViAts 

^— — XV. xvi. 

1^3. the great Whore along 

with theBeaft increafe 

the Calamity xvii. 

3. the Royal Vidory, by 

which thefore-mentioned 
Enemies are removed ; 
and that in an inverted 
Order, viz. 

/i. the great Whore is 
judged and the King- 
dom of God gets the 
upper Hand xviii. xix. 
2. the Beaft and the falfe 
Prophet are thrown 
into the Lake of Fire 
— — xix. 

\3. Satan is bound and 
Tmprifoned — xx- 

4. the Government of Chrijl 
without oppofition: For 
after the advances made 
at feveral times (partly 
before the Trumpet of the 
Seventh Angel C. vii. 9. 
but moftly under it C. 
xiv* I. 13. xy. 2.) his 

Part i. §. ii. yx 

Reign goes on now in it s 
full Sway: For 
/i. The Nations are no 
longer feduced by Sa- 
tan but have Chrijl for 
their Shepherd xx. 3. 

2. Thofe of the firft Re- 
furredtion reign with 
Chriji — 4* 

3. Gog and Magog are 
deftroyed, and Sata?i 
who had been let loofe 
for a little while, is 
caft into the Lake of 
Fire — 7* 

4. The dead are judged 
— — II. 

15. A new Heaven; a new 
Earth; anewjerufa- 
lem, the everlafting. 
Kingdom xxi. xxii. 

4ll, The CONCLUSION: which has a 
Relation to the Preliminaries above, 
and exaftly anfwers to them. xxii. 6-2 1 ^ 

The Reader would do well to make him- 
felf throughly acquainted with this Table ; 

72 Introduction* 

for in the Expofition we fhall not give argu-^- 
ments or contents at the beginning of the; 
feveral Vifions or of the Chapters -, but han- 
dle the Text plainly and diredly in the Or- 
der of the chapters and verfes; The Con- 
tents of the whole will be beft comprehend- 
ed by means df the Seftions in the T'aik ; 
as they are properly diftributed in it accord- 
ing to their real P art s^ it being framed with 
a farther view then merely to be a help to> 
the Memory. It may alfo be ufeful to com- 
pare with this^ ajiother TCablc which is to fol- 
low in the firft SecSion of the Condiifion. 


There has been for a long time much 
Talk and much Writing about Hypvthefes, as 
they call them, widi regard to the Expofition 
of the Prophets; as many Interpreters want 
fuch Grounds to build their Interpretations 
upon. But thefe are commonly the Produdl 
of an arbitrary choice, dnd people fo twift 
and bend the Word of God to fait with them, 
that they deduce from it any thing that they 
would fain find in it. Nothing that is right 
can be fettled oh fuch a bottom: and I ear- 

Part i. §. iii* 73 

ncftly entreat that no one will afcribe to me 
any particular Hypothecs, We may (nay, 
we muft) begin with fuch Remarks as the 
text clearly points out; afterward we inay 
advance farther and farther by means of right 
deductions and inferences. In making re- 
marks we ought to rely on the words of the 
text, without furmifmg, that perhaps the 
Fervency of Spirit in which St. John wrote, 
may have fometimes difcompofed him, and 
that thereby his difcourfe may be disjointed 
and out of order. The utterance of weak 
and frail me?i may be fomewhat difturbed by 
jtheir earneftnefs : but it is not fo with the 
holy meit of God» We ought then to receive 
what lies before us with the ?rverence due to 
what iswRiTTEN. In a difcourfe wherein 
your own profit or lofs, your own honour or 
diflionour is concerned, felf-kve will move 
ycu to weigh exadly every w^ord : in like 
manner the Love of God will not fufter us 
to be contented with a fuperficial view of the 
words, in a prophecy in which the honour 
of God is fo nearly concerned, 

74 Introduction. 


Some interpret almolT: all the Prophecjr 
e^vifibk things, from civil and ecclefiaflical 
hiftory : and others moftly of the invifibk. 
This laft may be called a theofophical and 
philadelfhian or pneumatical, and the other 
a hiflorical and emblematical expofition. 
Writers of either ki?id are apt to overdo in 
fheir own way and fo come fliort in the other ^ 
#^^will not prefcribe to our Lord Jesus 
Christ, what he ftiould oi* fhould not have 
made known to us in his revelation; but 
Feeeive juft what he jQiews us with thankful- 
nefs, fimplicity and reverence. All Power 
not only o?i Earthy but alfo in Heaven^ is gi- 
ven to the Lord Jesus, as he himfelf tef- 
tifieth after his refurredtion : At his Name 
cvejy knee bows-, of things in heaven^ of things 
on earthy and of things under the earth. His 
Name is above every name that is named in 
this world and in that which is to some: He 
hath the keys of death and hell. This Power of 
his, and how by little and little he brings all 
into SubjeBion to himfelf, is the Principal 
THING defcribed in this precious book* 

Part i, §. iv. 75 

^Jobi is informed fometimes by the Lord 
Jesus himfelf, fometimes by Tan Angela now 
by cnc of the four ccleflial linji?ig Creatures^ 
then by one of the twenty four Eiders: and 
hence it is plain that thefe laft were not pil- 
grims or fojourners upon the earth, but in- 
habitants of thf )ther world, in which the 
liturgy and divine fervice is celebrated, Mi- 
chael fought his battle &c. C. iv. v, viii. ix. 
xii. xiv. XV. &c. Now as all that comes to 
pafs in the vifible world fprings from the in- 
vifible: thither aifo it flows back after it is 
done. Thus wonderfully are they inter- 
woven : and we muft adhere purely to what 
we find writte?;, Invifible things are more 
noble and important : but we, flrangei-s on 
the earth, more eafily underftand vifible 
things, and by thefe arife up to the others. 
All hiftory civil and ecclefiaftical ferves for 
a proof that Jesus Christ hath allPcrwer on 
'Earth : but his Fewer in Heaven is incom- 
parably more extenfive. Now whoever fixes 
his eye on the one or the other only^ will 
look upon our conclufions as jejune and fcan- 
ty; but he who, v/here St. John treats of in- 
vifible and heavenly things, attends to invlil-. 

y6 Introduction. 

ble things too; and again, when St. John 
points to vifible things of this lower world, 
in iimplicity follows him, will in this middle 
ivay rightly underftand the whole. 

The Throne, and He that fits upon it, 
and the Lamb, is, as it were, the Center 5 
near to which ftand the four living Crea- 
tures, the twenty-four Elders as priefts, and 
the Angels ; the Circimiference is all the in- 
vifible and vifible Creatures, Pfalm Ixxvi. 
3 I . All that be rcitnd about kim. Hence this 
book has often a diJlinSl and yet intimately 
connefted reference to God, and to Christ ; 
and after them to the Angels, and to the 
Saints : and in confcquence of this, m.any 
things are propofed in a twofold manner : 
C. X. 7. xi. 3. and C. xiv. i — 5. and C. xiv. 
JO. and C. xviii. 20: 21 — 23: 24. and C. 
xxi. I, 2 — 9, 10. Many things are ex- 
plained and cleared up by the help of thi^ 
Obfervatioji : and therewith agrees what fol- 
lows in §. xix. and xxvi. 

Part i, §. vi, vii, vm. 77 


* Sometimes the motion is from the Cen- 
ter to the Circumference, viz. when the 
word of commatici concerning ihmgs to be 
done is iifued out and pubhfhed, C. v. 9 : 
Sometimes again from the Circumference to 
the Center, namely when the thing is cc- 
tically executed :md. fulfilled, C. xix. 23 both 
of them chiefly exprelTed in fongs of praife 
and thankfgiving. He that attends to this 
wdll duly conne(^t thofe things that have a 
coherence, and rightly feparate thofe that 
are difcin6l, 


The facred number of Seven occurs of- 
ten 3 and even thofe Seveiis or Septcnaries that 
are the moft briefly and tranfiently mention- 
ed, are in themfelves very profound, myfle- 
rious and w^eighty : as the fevcn Spirits of 
God, the feven Eyes and feven Horns of 
the Lamb, and fo the feven Thunders, yea 
the feveh Heads of the Drao-on too. 



But the feven Churches in Jfia widi their 
Angelsj the feven Seals, the fevcn Angels 

yS Introduction. 

with their T^rumpets^ and the feven Angels 
with their Viahy are defcribed at full length. 
Concerning the feven Heads of the Beaft 
we will fay nothing yet : and only obfervc 
that both in good and evil things the invifi- 
ble and vifible worlds agree in the Septenary 
Number; T^hat being reprefented and fet 
forth to us by this, as T&V is (as it were) a- 
nimated and ruled by that. 


In our difqulfition concerning the above- 
mentioned exiaifive Septenaries, the fureil 
and eafieft way w^ill be to begin with the 
feven T^rumpets^ and of them the three lajly 
under which are the three Woes. Here 
we find manifeftly three periods of time 
diiliinguifhed from one another by determi- 
nate intervals and breaks, and accompanied 
with a great many plain characflers and to- 
kens; fuch as are not to be found either 
with the trumpets of the four firft angelsi 
or the churches and their angels, or with 
the feals or vials. In all difquiiitions cer- 
tain particular data are neceffary, to ena- 
ble us, by fettling them firft, to determine 

Part i. §. x. 79 

afterwards concerning generals^ which are 
not fo prccifely characterized. Whoever 
thinks he can dij-petife with fueh data in his 
refearches, may take ^hat^ if he v/ill confi- 
der of it, as a token that he has not taken 
the thing by the right handle. A lock on 
the door of a well-fecured room or cabinet 
has, to be fiire, its own proper key, with- 
out which there is no opening of it, but by 


THE^r/? wo has its indiijDiitable limits^ 
in C. ix. I — II. Thcfeccndis defcribed irk 
C. ix. 13 — 21 ; and the tkh'^d in the whole 
xiii^^ C. Let us diftindly examine the prin- 
cipal parts of thefe texts neceflary for our 

I. The whole paffage from C. x. i. to 
C xi. 13. has a manifeft relation to the 
trumpet of the feventh angel. The fum 
€f the paffage is this : ^hat it potdd not 
be a full Chronos' more^ til!, in ths 

*= X^oyc? (CJjronos) fignifies Time in general : fo that \vc 
fay properly a long Chronos, ViJ/:ort Chronos, or Time. But 
«^ben the word is ufcd without ar.y rdlriclive epithet or 

8 O Ln T R O D U C T I O N . 

days of the voice of the fevcntb angel ^ivheH 
he Jhould begin to found ^ the myftery of Go jy 
JJ:cidd be finifoed^ as he hath declared to his fcr- 
vants the prophets. But this paflage conlifts 
of two parts which run parallel to one ano- 
ther. The firft is C. x. 5 — 7 ; and the fe- 
cond, C. X. 8 — xi. 13. The contents of 
both parts begi?! indeed before the end of 
the fecond wo, with the Non-Chronos and 
the many Kings : but in the connedted Se- 
quel do not end under the trumpet of the 
fixth angel, but rather reach into the trum- 
pet of the feventh angel, nay under that 
quite on to beyond the end of the third wo; 
and that in fuch a manner that the whole 
IS infeparably connected. Thus the paffage 
confifrs not of fuch things as were all paji 
before the trumpet of the feventh angel ; 

name of any meafure, it figniiies in the beft Greek writers, a 
long time; as, oict x^ov^, after a time, is .the fame as ^ja 
iraTO^s ^povs, after a long time. Here however Chronos is 
fufpofed, and farther on in this Introduftion it will be pi o^ved^ 
to fignify in this prophecy a certain determinate meafure or 
fpace of time (and that a long one, more than a thoufand 
years) as Kairos, &rc. rendered a Time and Times and half 
a Time C. xii. 14. is vniverfally acknowledged to figivify. 
This Space of not a full Chrovds is for brevity called a Non'^ 

Part i. §. x. 8i 

but of a declaration of fuch things as^^A 
kw^ partly before, but moftly under that 
trumpet. Confider the following clear 
proofs of it, (i.) The Pofture of the an- 
gel, fetting his right foot on the Sea, and 
his left on the Land, and lifting up his 
hand to Heaven, concurs to declare that, 
under the trumpet of the feventh angel, 
the Enemies, notwithftanding all that they 
fhould attempt, as yet in Heaveriy and af- 
terwards on the Sea and on the Land^ muft 
however be driven out of Heaven, the Sea 
and the Land, and give way to the finifb- 
ing of the myftery of God. (2.) The 
Beaft does not arife out of the bottomlefs pit 
twice, but only once toward the latter end 
of his time ; and the proper place in the 
prophecy of this ariling is in the defcription 
of the beaft, namely, in C. xviii. where it is 
fpoken of in v. 8. as yet to come ; whereas 
in C. xi. 7, this arifing is only mentioned 
beforehand by the by^ but however for a ve- 
ry neceflary purpofe, viz. the declaration of 
the Time of the two Witnefles. (3.) It is 
in one and the fame great City that two 


82 Introduction. 

Earthquakes happen : now the firft of them 
falls out under the Vial of the feventh an- 
gel, and the other afterwards under the two 
witneiTes. The firft is general ; but the 
great city was not fo greatly hurt by it, be- 
ing only divided into three parts. The fe- 
cond is not general, but falls on the great 
city in particular, but then fo much the 
more heavily ; for feven thoufand people 
were killed and the reft put into a falutarjr 
fright. Certainly the Divifion of the city 
into three parts did not fall out after their 
being thus converted ; for (4.) In general 
the dreadful accomplifliment of the holy 
wrath of God comes firft, and after that 
follows the long'd-for finiftiing of the myf- 
tery of God. (5.) There are not two fuch 
finifhings of the myftery and words of 
God, but one only: the proper place of 
which is in C. xvii. 17. at the deftrudion 
of the enemies : but in C. x. 7. this joyful 
end is beforehand promifed. Thus all that 
is mentioned C. x. xi. concerning the Myf- 
tery of God, as alfo concerning the holy 
City and the two Witneflis, plainly reaches, 
cs to the Execution of it, far into the trum- 

Part i. §. x. 83 

pet of the feventh angel, under which it 
will, at its proper feafon, be fpeedily finifh- 
ed. For this reafbh there is alfo a remark- 
able difference in the expfefilon : before 
and after this palTage the prophecy is ex- 
preffed moftly in the preterfenfe, but iii 
C. X. xi. moftly ih the future : where the 
certainty of the thing, the time how long it 
fliall be to the accompli fhment, its whole 
courfe, the place where it will be, and the 
inftruments to be employed in it, being all 
defcribed before-hand, the way is cleared 
that the defcription of the Raifer of the 
third wo and of his overthrow, under the 
trumpet of the feventh angel, may go on 
without interruption, 

II. The phrafe, ^e fecond wo is pajl^ 
behold the third wo cometh quickly C xi. 
14. very well agrees with this, that 
much of what Is mentioned before it 
in C. X. xi. ihould be fulfilled, noturi- 
der the trumpet of the fixth> but that 
of the feventh angel. 
There are three important phrafes In C, 
viii, 13. ix, 12. xi. 14, The firft, Wo, Wo, 

84 Introduction. 

Wo^ to the inhabitants of the earth : the fe- 
cond, ^hejirjl wo is pajl^ behold there come 
two woes more hereafter : the third, Tl6^ 
fecond wo is paft^ behold the third wo cometh 
quickly* And to this third phrafe refers that 
iterated declaration, Wo to the earth and the 
fea C. xii. 12. But no fuch fourth phrafe 
is to be found afterwards, that the third wo 
is pajt &c. Hence it follows that all thefc 
phrafes are principally denunciations or de- 
clarations of future miferies (juft as future 
good things are foretold by fimilar phrafes, 
C. xiv. 7. xix. 7. I^he hour of his judgment is 
come: the marriage of the Lamb is come) and 
that in the fecond and third phrafe the prin- 
cipal thing intended is the Coming of the fe- 
cond and third wo, and not the firft and fe- 
cond wo's being paft. Wherefore alfo it is 
not faid, the two woes are pajl\ but, the fe- 
cond wo is paji : whereby the iirft wo is as 
it were forgotten. On the contrary, the 
phrafes always have an equal regard to all 
the woes that are comings viz. Wo^ Wo^ Wo: 
^wo woes are coming ^ not, the fecond wo is 
coming. Likewife in the denunciation of 
the yet future fecond and third woes \\% faid. 

.Part I. §. x. '8:5 

hereafter y and, qiiickly-y and in both, behold. 
If therefore it fliould be objedled that, in the 
prophecy, the End of the fecond wo is not 
mentioned 'till after the death and refurredlion 
of the two witnefles and their being taken up 
into heaven, and that therefore all thefe 
things happen under the trumpet of the fixth, 
not the feventh angel: the proper anfwer 
would be, that in the above-mentioned fe- 
cond, and fo alfo in the third phrafe, the paft 
wo is juft taken notice of merely as paft, the 
t\\mg principally in view is that which is to 

Hence it plainly appears, i, That the 
third wo muft follow in the text very foon 
after the words, T'he fecond ivo is pafl^ behold 
the third wo cometh quickly. Accordingly 
there follow immediately after thefe words 
in an infeparable connexion (i.) the Sound- 
ing of the feventh angel, juft as the found- 
ing of the fifth and fixth angel follows after 
the firft and fecond phrafe; (2.) the Summa- 
ry of the contents of this fingular and fo im- 
portant trumpet, which contains in it fuch a 
variety of matters; (3.) the Execution of 
th.efe fame contents, and particularly the Oc- 


cafion the Dragon takes to raife the third wo> 
together with the third wo itfelf ; jitft as in 
the trumpet of the fifth and fixth angel the 
Source of the firfl: and fecond wo and thefe 
two woes themfelves are mentioned. Now 
as the phrafe concerning the quick coming of 
the third wo could not be rightly feparated 
from the three juft mentioned points, to which 
it chief y relates, and be fet farther back ; fb 
neither again could it have a place before that 
paflage C. x. i — xi. 13. For under the 
trumpet of the feventh angel there fall out 
good, then bad, and again good things: 
now it was very fuitable that tlie contents 
of the trumpet in general fhould be propofed 
in that place, viz, fooner than the immediate 
propofal of the third wo^ w^hich makes but 
a party and indeed a fmall part, of the 
things contained under that trumpet. An- 
fwerably to which, from C. x. i. to C. xi.13. 
there is nothing faid about the third wo, and 
civen in C. xi. 14. it is not faid the third wo 
is come ; but, is coming. So then, neither 
was it the proper place before the beginning 
of the x'^ chapter to make this declaration. 
Beheld the third wo cometh quickly. Yea evea 

Part i. §. x. 87 

the words, the fecojid wo is pajl^ would have 
come in too early at the end of the ix'^ chap- 
ter, where neverthelefs the defcription of the 
fecond wo is fully completed: for the fo oft 
mentioned paflage (C. x. i— xi. 13) adually 
begins, as to both it's parts, before the end of 
the fecond wo. Thus it is quite proper that 
in the third phrafe the lefs emphatical part, 
the fecond wo is pafl^ [fince it was not to be 
feparated from the principal part, Behold^ the 
third wo cometh quickly y tlie proper place of 
which is in C xi. 14, viz. juft before the 
founding of the feventh trumpet] fhould 
(palling over what comes in as it were in a 
parentheiis about the two witneffes &c.)have 
a retrofped: to the conclufion of the ix''* 

III. The Trumpet of the feventh angel 

begins C. xi. 1 5. and to this Trumpet 

belongs the reft of that xi'^ chapter, 

the xii'^ the xiii'*" and fo on. 

The Summary of the contents of this 

trumpet is in C. xi. 15. and in ver. 17, 18. 

And the Execution of it is opened in ver. 19. 

and from the beginning of the xii'^ chapter. 

88 Introduction. 

is treated of at large. If any one ihould fancy 
that the Prophecy begins again quite anew 
at the birth of the Man-child C. xii. 5 ; this 
opinion will be throughly confuted by the 
remarkable, clear and important Parallelifm 
of the Voices in G. xi. 15. and the Voice in 
C. xii. 10. T^hofeVoiccs fay thus; T^he^king- 
do?n of the world is become cur Lord's and his 
Christ's: Afterward this Voice fpeaks; 
Now the fahatioriy the might and the king- 
dom is become our God's, and the poisoer his 
Christ's. The former voices belong in- 
difputably to the trumpet of the feventh an- 
gel; wherefore this latter voice muft necef- 
farily belong to it alfo. For the fubjed of 
both is entirely the fame, with this only dif- 
ference that in the latter voice the Execution 
is more particularly and precifely mark'd out 
by the word Now (a^'^O ^^^ ^^ ^^ following 
words more fully celebrated : from whence 
we may fee fo much the more clearly, that 
thofe voices were before this voice, and there- 
fore this belongs to the trumpet of the fe- 
venth angel, as certainly as thofe do. Yea 
the adual Breaking forth of the execution of 
tliis trumpet falls out in the midft between 

Part i. §. x, 89 

^ofe and this^ where Satan is caft out of 
heaven. All that follows, after this caft- 

ing out, is clofely connefted. 

From thefe III remarks we may draw 
thefe following conclufions. 

I. No part of what is written from C. x. i 
to C. xi. 13 belongetb to the fecond wo. 

This follows from the i'' remark^ and 
is farther confirmed from the following an- 
tithefis, viz. in the fecond wo things ended 
in a wretched impenitence, C. ix. 20, 21: 
on the contrary, Cxi. 1 3, (at the finifhing the 
myftery of God) in the converfion of a very 
great multitude. Only the latter end of the 
fecond wo, and the beginning of what is 
mentioned from C- x. i to xi. 13 in point 
of time run parallel a ^ little while, 

II. T!he third Wo is defcribedat length in C. 
xiii, and only notice gin^en of it before-hand in 
C xii. 12. 

This is proved in the \t^ remark. But 
let us more throughly confider in C. ix, xii, 
xiii, the following refemblances referring to 

^ Not above 40 years ; whereas the whole Non-<;hronos, 
C X. 6, is more than 1000 years. 

90 Introduction. 

one another in many particulars, and advanc- 

ing by feveral fteps ; 

r^ Wo. 

A Star fallen 
from heaven, 
and the Pit of 
the Abyfs o 

2. The Leader; 
The Angel of 
the Abyfs. 


4. The Perfons 

plagued *y 
All the Men 
that were not 
fcaled. I 

ir Wo. 

He who cry'd 
out of the 
horns of the 
golden altar, 
Loofe the four 
angels on the 
2. The Leaders-, 
The four An- 
gels that had 
been bound on 
Some hundred 
millions of 

4. The Perforis 

plagued 'y 
The third part 
of Men. 


Michael, after 
whofe vidlory 
the Dragon is 
call out of 

2. The Leader 'y 
The Dragon, 
who had hi- 
therto beenjn 
Two horrible 
Beafts, and 
their Adhe- 
4. The Perfons 

plagued 'y 
All that dwell 
on the Earth, 

Part i. §. x 

5. J'he DuraA 5. "The Dura- 
tion-, tion\ 
Five Months. One Hour, 
one Day, one 

6. T^he Power-, 
To torment, 
without kil- 




6. 'The Power; 

To kill. 


5. The Dura- 

tion ', 
A fliort time, 

Months, &c. 

6. The Power; 
All Manner 
of Mifchief. 

Here are three Columns that fland by the 
Jide of one another ; and in each, fix points 
or articles that follow one another. In the 
firft column is the Jirjl, and in the fecond is 
the fecond wo. Now let any man confider 
if it is poffible there fliould be 770 wo, or even 
not a more horrible wo, in the third co- 
lumn, which refembles the firft and fecond 
in all points ; or whether he ought not rather 
to difcern and acknowledge in it the third wo, 
and that as the greateft of the three. Add 
to this fome other reflexions on the third 
woe's having fometimes a refemblancc, either 
to both the firft .and fecond alike, or (for 
reafons that will appear in the Expofition) 
only to one of them, and totr.etlnics fome- 

92 Introduction. 

what particular to itfelf, as it is the moft 
grievous of them all. Let us produce thefe 
reflexions in the order of the fore-mention- 
ed articles. 

I. 2. The Occajioriy ^nd the Leader. 

The Occafion [of each woe] is always 
taken by the enemies from what is every now 
and then a doing by fome mighty Being who 
from one wo to another has a ftill higher 
fundtion. And the enemies come always 
from a higher and higher place, and are in 
their nature more and more mifchievous. 

2. 3. The Leader y and the Army. 

The Leader in the firfl: wo hath an He- 
brew and a Greek name, Abaddon and Apol- 
Jyon: and in like manner in the third, a Greek 
and an Hebrew name, the Devil (^c^ta^oxo?) 
and ^ Satan. There is not the leaft mention 
made of this Dragon from C. iv, where the 
vifion begins, to C. xi ; but fo much the 
more frequently is he mentioned from C. xii 
to C. xxs fo that on his coming down hither 
from heaven it is faid, Wo to the Earth and 
the Sea. This, this, is that third Wo, which, 
« i. e. the Calumniator, the Traducer. f i. e. the Enemy. 

Part i. §. x. 93 

as the moft horrible, is fo oittn foretold \m- 

der the exprefs name of a Woy viz, firft of 

all, together witli the firft and fecond wo, 

C. viii. 13 ; then after the firft and along 

with the fecond, C. ix. 123 again after the 

fecond, C. xi. 14 ; and laftly alone, C. xii. 

12; and then, almoft prefently after this 

laft declaration, circumftantially defcribed in 

the xiii^'' chapter. Or iliall the difafters 

brought on by the Angel of the Abyfi and 

the four Angels from Euphrates be reckoned 

as two woes, but on the other fide the 

Dragon himfelf and under him the t^wo 

Beafls (in the defcription of whom the Man 

of Sln^ 2 Thefl^. C. ii. 3, is alfo included) 

bring no Wo by all the incomparably great 

miferies they are the authors of? 

4. The Perfotis plagued. 

Whereas in the firft phrafe, JVo, V/o^ 

Wo^ mention is made of thofe that dwell on 

the Earth 'y 'tis thereby fignified (compare 

C. iii. 10 with C. vi. 10.) that on the whole 

the three woes fall not indeed upon the 

Saints, but otherwife are general. Now in 

the firft and fecond wo, as the firft touches 

the Jeu's particularly, and the other the 

94 Introduction. 

Heathejiy but more efpecially thtfalfe Chrif- 
tians^ and fo both of thefe are not fo gene- 
ral ; mention is made only of men, with- 
out any great emphafis 3 on the contrary, as 
the third wo touches all thefe forts of people, 
and fo is flrid:ly general, now for the firfl 
time is exprefs mention made again of thofe 
that dwell on the earthy and indeed often, 
viz, in a paffage that has a view, fo early 
as in C. xi. 10 to the latter time of the 
third wo ; and in the defcription of the 
wo itfelf in C. xiii. 8, 12, 14, 3, 7: xvii, 
2, 8 : xii. 12. 

5. The Diiratlcn. 
The marks of Time appear firft along 
with the trumpets. Thofe of the firft, 
fecond, third and fourth angel have no 
marks of time : but thofe of the fifth, fixth 
and feventh, have. Now of the woes un- 
der thefe three laft angels, fhould only the 
firft and fecond have their marks of time, 
and not much rather the third? The prin- 
cipal fcope of the times of the three woes 
together is our information how long it will 
be yet to the finifliing of the myftery of 
God: and he who thus fuppofes a third 

Part i. §. x. 95 

wo without any mark of time, in a great 
meafure frullrates the defign of the marks 
of time fet to the firft and fecond wo ; 
nay he will hardly be able to determine the 
duration of the firft and fecond wo without 
that of the third. Now there is no mark 
of time for the third wo but in C. xii, xiii. 
The firft wo has its duration allotted it by 
the Locujis^ in the vifible -, the fecond by 
the four Angeh let loofe, in the iwoifihle 
w^orld: and the third by the Dragon^ in 
the invifibky and partly alfo by the Beaft, 
the fubftitute or deputy of the dragon, C. 
xiii. 2, in the 'vifible world. 

6. The Power, 

This word Power (fS^o-i^i) is found In each 
of the woes, C. ix. 3, 19 : xiii. 5, &c. 

So manifold a refemblance of what we 
reckon the third wo, to the firft and fecond, 
no man can pronounce to be a human fic- 
tion, or fliew fuch a refemblance to them 
any where but in the fubjedl of C. xii, xiii. 

in. T'he [even Vials are ?iot the third Wo. 

I. The feven holy angels with their i^vtvi 
vials have not the leaft Hkenefs, fo far 
are they from having fo manifold a refem- 

^6 Introduction. 

blance to the firft and fecond wo, as the 
miferies have of which the dragon and 
the two beafts are the authors. 2. In 

thofe clear paflages C. viii. 135 xiv. 6, &c. 
there ftand in contrail ( i ) one who flies in 
the midft of heaven and proclaims fome- 
thing, and another who alfo flies in the 
midft of heaven and proclaims fomething : 
(2) The one cries Wo, Wo, Wo: the other, 
on the contrary, has a Gofpel (suayfixiov) or 
good 'T'idings. (3) The three woes have 
their duration exprefsly mentioned : fo alfo 
has the golpel or good tidings ; an everlaft- 
ingnefs ^ (aiwv) ig afcribed to it. (4) The 
three woes, and particularly the third, extend . 
to the inhabitants of the earth : the good 
tidings are to them that dwell on the earth, 
namely, who tho' they are upon it, do not 
adhere to it in their hearts. For which 
reafon as the whole firft and fecond wo, 
fo the third, as to the greater part of it, 
muft certainly ftand before the everlafting 
gofpel, and therefore much more before the 

^ This word a»wv (a'ion) tevum has alfo its determinate 
fignification, and denotes a fpace fomewhat more than two 
thoufand years : as will be feen hereafter. 

Part i. §. x. j^ 

feven vials. 3. The third wo comes 

quickly after the fecond, viz, with the dra- 
gon, the beaft &c ; on the contrary the 
feven vials come long after ; for the vial of 
the very firft angel is poured out on them 
that had the mark of the beaft and worfliip- 
ped his image, tho* this mark and image 
came late, being the work of the other or 
fecond beaft. 4. As the iirft wo was 
caufed by the angel of the abyfs, and the 
fecond by the four angels let loofe ; in like 
manner the third is afcribed to the wrath of 
the De^cil: on the contrary, by the {<tvtxi 
vials the holy wrath of God is accompliihed, 
5. As the third wo was checked, with re- 
Ipedl to them that dwell on the earth, by 
means of the everlafting Gofpel ; in like 
manner the Authors of the mifchief had 
their power reftrained by means of the {t\'^n 
Vials under the third wo ; and confequent- 
ly that wo was not firft brought on by the 
itv^n vials. 

For the fame reafons the third wo can 

by no means be put off till the little feafon 

of Sata?is being let loofe out of the abyfs ; 

though the laft deception of the nations aC 

^ N 

98 Introduction. 

that time has a refemblance to the machi- 
nations of that enemy during the fiort 
time^ C. xii. 13* 

IV. In the ^hanfgiving of the Riders the third 
Wo is indeed by the by mentioned beforehandy 
but 7iot properly defer i bed C. xi. 18. 

This Thankfgiving ftands between the 
general contents of the trumpet of the fe- 
venth angel and the execution of it -, and 
there it is faid, toward the end of the 
thankfgiving, that the time is come to dejlt^oy 
thofe that dejiroyed the earth. If one looks 
here for any thing concerning the third 
wo, all that he will find is only the men- 
tioning that the eaj'th was dejiroyed. Com,- 
pare the places alledged in Concluf ii. Point 
4, above in this §. Thofe deftroyers of 
the earth fhall indeed be deftroyed in their 
turn ; yet not by the third wo, but long 
after it, at the time of the Dead and of the 
Judgment: on the contraiy the third wo 
falls upon the inhabitants of the earthy not 
on thofe who lie in the lake of fire. 

Now as all that is contained in this 
thankfgiving is afterwards repeated again 
and largely treated of 3 fo alfo are the de- 

Part i. §. x, xi. 99 

ftroyers of the earth defcribed at full kngth 
under the third wo, in C. xiii. 

V. The right Determimfim of the three ivoes 
is a point 07i which very much depends. 

He that cannot feparate from one another 
the fecond wo and the paffagc in C. x. i — 
xi. 13, will find that this is already a con- 
iiderable ohftacle to the underftanding of 
the prophecy. And he that cannot dlfcern 
the third wo chiefly in the xili'^ chapter will 
certainly find it his heft w^ay to concern 
himfelf no farther about this book as a Pro- 
phecy^ or to content himfelf with fingle paf- 
faees here and there. But whoever is of 
the fame mind with me, let him go on a- 
long with me, 


We muft alfo under the trumpet of the 
feventh angel accurately diftinguifli between 
the Dragon's refidiiig in Heaven, on Eartl\ 
and in the Abyfs, and, after the little feafon, 
in the luoke of Fire : as always after every 
new fatanical device he muft get down 
lower. For, after he had accufed the bre- 
thren day and night before God, he muft 
leave Heaven : after having raifed the third 

100 Introduction. 

wo upon Earth and carried it on during 
the fhort time C. xii. I2, he muft go into 
the Abyfs for a thoufand years : and after 
deceiving Gog and Magog, in the little fea-^ 
fon C. XX. 3, into the Lake of Fire, where 
he will be tormented for ever. Thus not 
one of thefe four defcents runs parallel 
with any other for one moment, but the 
one always follows the other in the order 
defcribed. If we invert this order, the 
thing will appear yet more clearly : In the 
Lake of Fire the Devil is tormented for ever; 
not yet fo in the abyfs. In the Abyfs he is 
bound; but not fo on earth. On Earth he 
raifes the third wo : but can no longer 
accufe the brethren before God, as he had 
done in heaven. 


What we mentioned above in §. ii^ con- 
cerning the meaning of the feven Epiftles, 
the feven Seals, the feven Trumpets, and the 
feven Vials is now gradually become clearer 
by what we have faid hitherto. 

Several men of lively imagination 
would have the Jpocalypfe together with 

Part i. §. xiir. loi 

many other texts of the fcriptures of the old 
and new teftament diftributed mXofeve?t Pe- 
riods of the Times of the New Teftament ; 
and that in fuch wife that to the firft period 
fliould belong the firft epiille, the firft feal, 
the trumpet of the firft angel, and the 
vial of the firft angel ; and fo to the fe- 
cond, third, and the reft of the periods one 
after another, the fubfequent epifties, feals, 
trumpets and vials : nay more, fometimes 
they labour to find out a throughly equal 
length of fuch periods, but neverthelefs in 
the mean time expound the epifties or vials 
to quite a different purpofe. Away v»'ith 

fuch arbitrary fanciful devices ! which we 
ftiall hereafter confute more at large, after 
the expofition of the iii'* chapter. The 
three woes have their appropriate Duration, 
but of an unequal and always increafing 
length : and between them are two Inter- 
vals, which, tho' their length is not ex- 
prefled, ought to be confidered as Periods of 
time (as Refts are a part of a tune) as much 
as the lengdi of the trumpets of the firft, 
fecond, third and fourth angels, concern- 
ing die times of which no nodce is given. 

102 Introduction. 

not even lb much as whether one ends fooner 
or later, or at the fame time that another 
begins. On the contrary there are, under 
the trumpet of the feventh angel alone, 
many long periods of time, in the whole 
x^^, xi''', &c. to the xx'^ chapters. For 
this reafon it is not fpeaking with propriety 
to talk of feven Periods of '^hne^ even if it 
were only in refpedl of the feven Trumpets; 
whereas they are rather feven judgments or 
Vifitations^ which indeed come to pafs one 
after another, but have between them and 
after tliem divers other periods, fome more 
tolerable, and fome even joyful. And for 
what reafon fhould the Space from St. fohvh 
being in Patmos to the End of all things^ ra- 
ther than the times of the old teftament by 
itfelf, or than the times of the old and new 
teftament taken together, be divided into 
feven periods of time ? there is yet lefs 
ground for making feven periods of time of 
the feven churches and their angels, of the 
feven feals, and of the feven vials. For 
even fuppofing the feven trumpets were fe- 
ven periods of time, yet it does not follow 
that the churches, the feals and the vials. 

Part i. §. xiii. 103 

tho' there be feven of each of them too, 
ihould point out feven periods of time: clfe, 
the feven horns of the Lamb, the fcYtn 
thunders, &c. muft alfo lignify feven Pe- 
riods of time. Befides ; this w^ill appear to 
be a fundamental maxim, tliat all that 
comes to pafs as predicted in the Revelation 
paffes quickly y except what is exprefsly com- 
prifed in long lajiing periods. Thus the 
trumpets of the three laft angels will reach 
very far, partly into after-times, even to the 
end of all things, partly backward, far into 
the former centuries of the new teflament ; 
and the trumpets of the four firft angels, as 
no time is mentioned along with them, will 
indeed take up lefs room, but withal will 
reach yet farther backward : fo that the fe- 
ven churches, the feven feals and the feven 
vials, which with refped: to the whole of 
their contents, and particularly as to marks 
of time, are very different from the Trum- 
pets, muft needs lignify fomewhat of quite 
another kind tnixu periods of time. 

104 Introduction. 

Throughout the prophecy there are 
exhibited to us four diffindl Circles or Spheres 
of things, or by whatever more proper name 
you pleafe to call them. 

The feven Epijiles are direfted, the for- 
mer part of each to the Angel of one of the 
feven churches in Afa, and the latter to 
the Univerfal Church of Christ, who pro- 
mifeth to him that overcometh thofe glori- 
ous rewards in the world to come C. ii, iii. 

The feven Seals comprehend all vifiblc 
and invifible creatures, as they are fubjedt 
to the Lamb, and the Lamb opens, and 
fully declares to them the divine decrees 
that had been hidden till then C. v, &c. 

' Compare this § with what is faid in the Gnomon on A- 
foe. V. I . Ecclefio' funt Exemplar, &C ; that is, 

The Churches are a Pattern according to which the Bo» 
4y of the church in all ages and nations, and the teachers and 
paftors of it, are to regulate their condudl. 

The Seals exhibit the conferring of all Poiver in heaven 
and on earth upon the Lamb. 

The Trumpets Ihake and harafs the kingdom of the nuorlJ^ 
till at laft it becomes xht kingdom of God and of his Christ. 

The Vials break the Poiver of the Beaji and of all that 
are in union with him. 

Keeping this Su^nmary always in view we fhall clearly dif- 
cern the genuine order in which the Apocalj'pfe proceeds. 

Part i. §. xiv, xv. 105 

The feven Trumpets ftrike at the Kingdom 

of the World till under that of the feventh 

angel it becomes the Kingdom of God and 

of his Christ, C. xi. 15. 

The feven Vials reprefs and check the 
diforders of the Beaft, &c. C. xvi. 2*- 10. 
All this is implied in the Nature of the 
contents of the epiftles, the feals, the trum- 
pets and the vials : and peculiarly agreeable 
to the nature of thefe contents are thefe deno- 
minations of epiftles, feals, trumpets and vials, 
as is alfo the Chronology (§. Iv), Yea the 
particular fongs of praife and thankfgivings, 
which refound at the unfolding of each 
fphere, point alfo to this. That which we 
find in C. i. 5, 6, along with the addrefs of 
the epiftles to the kvtxv churches in Afia, viz. 
Vnto him that loved uSy and wafied us from our 
fns in his own bloody and hath made us kings 
andpriefis unto God and his Father-, to him be 
glory and dominion for ever and ever : That, | 
fay, was fpoken in the name of the univerfal 
Church of Christ. The angciick fong ot 
praife> C. v. 12, Worthy is the Lamb that was 

io6 Introduction. 

Jlam^ to receive power ^ a?id riches y andwifdoniy 
and Jirengthy and honour ^ arid glory ^ and blef- 
Jingy fignifies the fame as if it had been faid. 
It belongeth of right to the Lamb to open 
the book and it's feven feals, and to have all 
Power over things vi/ible and invijibk. Again, 
the angelick fong of praife C. vii. 12, Blef- 
fingy and glory y and wifdomy and thankjgivingy 
and honour y and power y and mighty be unto 
our God for ever and ever 3 indicates that 
the Kingdom belongs to almighty God, and 
that by the trumpets all fhall be brought 
into fubjedlion to him. And when, on oc- 
calion of the vials, 'tis faid C. xv. 3, 4, 
Great and inarvellous are thy works y Lord 
God Ahnighty 'y juji and true are thy waySy 
thou King of faints. Who fall not fear T^heCy O 
Lord, and glorify thy name ? for thou only 
art holy: for all nations fall come andworfip 
before thee 3 for thy judgments are made mani- 
fef 'y in this the righteous punifment of the 
Be aft and his worfippers is praifed. Hence 
it appears that in this and other like places, 
the T'hings or reprefentations, and the JVords 
that accompany them, help to the fuller 
explanation of one another. 

Part i. §. xvi. 107 


When the divine Majefty is pleafed of 
his own accord to difcover his fecret pur- 
pofes and to put them in execution, he well 
knows how to maintain at the fame time, 
in a proper manner, the holy Reverence which 
all creatures, and even the minifters too 
and the witnefles and fpecftators of his ope- 
rations, eternally owe to him ; and how to 
require the Honour due to him. John, tho* 
he had formerly been admitted to lean on 
the bofom of the Lord, muft now in his 
old age, juft as he had finifhed the courfe 
of his apoftlefliip, although he was alfo 
purified by his fufferings in Patmos, prefent- 
\y fall at his feet as dead: and the kvQn 
Churches^ and their angels muft prepare 
themfelves, by repentance and perfeverance, 
for what was declared and certified to them. 
And thus it goes on at the beginning of 
each fphere in the main vifion. Before the 
opening of the feven Seals, all creatures muft 
acknowledge their inability y and give honour 
{C. v. 8 — 14) to the Lamb, who alone 
was worthy to undertake it : before the fe- 
ven trumpets is an excellent yS;;^ ofpraife to 

ro8 Intr6duction. 

God ; and upon the intervening opening of 
the feventh feal there begins a refpeBful 
fdencei after which the feven trumpets pow- 
erfully found one after another : before the 
pouring out of the itw^n Vials the fong of 
Mofes and the fong of the Lamb was Jung: 
and till thefe feven Plagues were fulfilled no 
man cOiild enter into the temple which had 
been opened. 

These four Spheres or Circles {land fo 
related to one another that, ii^ the Expofi- 
tion, one not only may fafely, but even mufi 
of neceflity abide by the Order in which 
the text places them. It is a miftake 
to divide the book in fuch a manner that 
this or that part ihall run out quite t6 
the end of the world, and then the next 
fliall begin again anew at the firft times 
of the new teftament. Confider §. x, xiii. 
Firft come the AddrefTes to the i^w^nChurches 
and their angels : prefently after the {^wtn 
Seals ^y and immediately, with the feventh 
of them, the feven 'Trumpets y and laftly the 
feven Vials, but not 'till under the trumpet 
of the feventh angel. 

Part i. §. xviii. 109 


YeT my meaning is not, that in thi^ 
way of ordering or ranking, each part muft 
be vv\io\\Y Jtnijhed before the fulfilling of th^ 
following part begins : for, if it were gene^ 
rally fo, there would have been no need of 
mentioning particularly fuch ending of one 
before the other began, on occafion of the 
three Woes C. ix. 12; xi. 14. And thus 
it does not follow from what has been faid, 
that the Epiftles muft all be fulfilled before 
the Seals were opened ; that the open'd 
Seals muft be wholly fulfilled before the 
Trumpets begin -, and that as to the Trum- 
pets, even the feventh, muft be entirely over 
before the Fials be poured cut. Things do 
not go fo, ftep by ftep, from one verfe to 
another : but all I fay is this ; that the Be^ 
ginning of every one part comes to pafs before 
the Beginning of the next mentioned part . The 
epiftles begin before the feals, the feals be- 
fore the trumpets, the trumpets before the 
vials ; one epiftle begins before the other, 
one feal before the other, one trumpet ejpe^ 
daily before the other, and one vial before 
the other. In this manner fomething may, 

no Introduction. 

without any breach of order, ftand before 
another in the text and yet come after it 
in the Execution : of which we have al- 
ready had a fingular inftance in the begin- 
nino- of § x» Yea fometimes that which 
began later ends fooner, and that which 
beo-an earlier reaches alfo far beyond the o- 
ther. The Vials begin not till under the 
trumpet of the feventh angel, and are quick- 
ly over ; after which the trumpet itfelf be- 
gins to manifeft its power anew. The Seals 
begin before the trumpets ^ yet a long while 
after the feventh angel had founded, the 
fifth feal, for inftance, manifefts its operatipn 
ftill, where the defire of the fouls under 
the altar is fulfilled C. xix. 2. The Epiftles 
come before the feals, and in the firft epiftle 
the eating of the tree of life is promifed, 
which is exhibited laft of all, along with 
and in the new Jerufalem. All this agrees 
quite well with the Contents of the epiftles, 
feals, trumpets and vials as ftiewn in § 
XIV. Above all, both the Beginning and the 
Conclufion of the book treats of Christ, 
who is the/r/? and the Iq/l. 

Part r. §. xix. * m 


Whoever comprehends this order will 
alfo rightly underftand the elegant Simulta-- 
neum, or that delicate manner of the text, by 
which the one of two things, that belong pre- 
cifely to the fame time, is often divided into 
two parts, and, as it were, fplit; and the 
other comes in unexpedtedly between thefe 
two parts, as in a parenthelis. In this man- 
ner concur thofe i?i the white robes^ and all the 
angels, C. vii. 9, 10, (11, 12,) 13 — 17: the 
talk of the elder with St. John, and the give- 
ing the commijjion to the angels, vii. i.i, 12, 
(13—17) C. viii. 2: th.c trwnpets of the feve?i 
angels, and the burning of the inceijfe by another 
angel, C. viii. 2. (3, 4, 5) 6: the oath of the 
mighty angel, and the [even thunders, C. x. 3, 
(4) 5: the cajling the dragon out of heaven^ 
and the fojig of praife in heaven, C. xii. o, 
( I o — 12) 13: the voice from heaven, and the 
faying of the Spirit, C. xiv. 13 : thefeven a/2- 
gels with thefeven laji plagues, and thefong of 
praife on the fea of glafs, and alfo the temple 
filled with fmoak from the glory of God, C. xv: 
the aBiojis ofthefixth angel with the vial, the 
going out of the three unclean fpiritSy and the 

112 Introduction. 

warning to watchfulnefsy C. xvi. 12,(13, 14, 
15) 16: in like manner the vial of the fiventh 
cngel to^Qihtv with its Effe^s^ and that word 
between. It is done^ C. xvi. 17, j8, (17): 
the triumph of the faints^ and that of the an- 
gely on the judgment of Babylon^ C. xviii. 20, 
(2I-— 23) 24: ^t judgment of Babylon and 
berfmoak^ and the Hallelujah between, C. xix. 
2. (3) 3: Satan s being loofe^ and the firji re- 
furre^lion^ C. xx. 3. (4—6) 7: the word of 
St.John^ Comey and that of the Lorp Jesus, 
Surely I come quickly, C. xxii. 20. Under 
this head alfo rnay be reduced that Exprei- 
fion in C. ii, iii. He that hath an ear &c, as 
it is thrice fet before, and four times after the 
Promife to him that overcometh; and fo h 
fpoken at the fame time along with it. See 
alfoC. ii. 10. iii. 8, xxi. 5, 6. 
The feven feals, the feven trumpets and 
the feven vials are all along divided into four 
and three, in fuch wife that the four firft feals, 
for example, have a peculiar connexion with 
one another, and fo alfo the three laft. For 
in the four firft feals 'tis always one of the 
celeftial living creatures that calls St. John t(> 

Part i. §. xx, xxi. 113 
come; and there is a horfe of a particular 
colour, and alfo his rider with peculiar 
badees : but in the three laft there is neither 
one nor the other. The trumpets of the 
three laft angels are accompanied with three 
woes and many other circumftances beiides 
(§. X.), which are not found with the trum- 
pets of the four firft : and thefe^ like the 
vials of the four firft angels, have their 
effed: on the earth, the fea, the rivers and 
fountains of waters, and the fun : but the 
trumpets and vials of the three laft angels 
elfewhere. There may be obferved alfo a 
divifion of the {even epiftles into four and 
three, or three and four : But as thefe how- 
ever have alfo fome Angular circumftances 
befides, it will not be fo convenient to con- 
fider them here in the Introduction as in the 
Expofition. This Divifion is c/ear, impor-' 
tant and uftfuL 


For the Fours are direfted to the four 

Quarters of the world, as we fliall prove in 

the Expofition. So in the four firft feals 

the Lion looks toward the Eaft, the Bull 


114 Introduction. 

toward the Wert, the Man toward the 
South, and the Eagle toward the North. 
Likewife in the trumpets and vials, by the 
Earth is meant Afta, by the Sea Europe, 
by the Rivers and Fountains of Waters, and 
alfo by the Trees that grow near them^ 
Africa-^ and all thefe lie under tlie Sun, 
together with the Norths Eccl. i. 3. 


The T^hrees relate in fome meafure to in- 
vilible things. Of the Sealsy the ffth re- 
lates to the Souls under the altar : and un- 
der the feventh Seal the fehjen Angels which 
ftand before God, make themfelves to be 
heard by the trumpets given to them. On 
this occafion obferve, that the Angels them- 
felves are much more confidered than the 
trumpets : fince there is no mention made 
of a firft and fecond, &c. trumpet^ but of 
the trumpets (and fo afterward of the vials) 
of the firft, fecond, third, fourth, fifth, fixth 
and feventh Angela C. viii. 13; ix. 14 ; 
X. 7. And with refped: to all thefe trum- 
pets all Angels had before founded a feven- 
fold praife, C. vii. 11, 12. Now, with 
the fifth and feventh feals compare xho^fxth 

Part i. §. xxir, xxiii. 1^5 
that comes between them : and it will ap- 
pear that it cannot be undcrflocd of any 
thing but the hiferi or the dead that are in 

Under the "Trumpets of the fifth, fixth 
and feventh angels, firil the Angel of the 
Abyfs, afterward the four Angels that were 
loofed, and at laft the Dragon himfelf, 
brings on a Wo (each tainted with a deeper 
malignity than another) upon the Inhabi- 
tants of the Earth. 

The Vials of the three laft anoels are 
alfo much more fevere than the four former; 
and in the vials of th.Qfixth ^nd fevenfb there 
are confiderable traces that this fe verity iffues 
from the invifble world, as well in the Vials 
of the three laft angels, as in the Trumpets 
of the three laft angels. 


Wonderful, and very confpicious in 
all this, is the Gradation in which the Evil 
and the Good always advance and increafe, 
till they come to the utmoft coiiflid with 
one another, and in the end the Good ob- 
tains the viftory due to it ; and in propor- 
tion to this Increafe, the clearnefs of the 

ii6 Introduction. 

expreffion too becomes always greater. This 
is to be feen iirft of all in the Spheres them- 
felves which we have been hitherto confi- 
dering : for a Book fealed and by and by 
opened affedts and touches one pretty fenfi- 
bly 3 a T!riimpet yet more fo ; but moft of 
all a Vial poured out. So then, even in thefe 
fpheres there is a gradual Advance from the 
Fours to the Threes^ and in the Fours from 
one Part to another, efpecially at the fourth 
part, as it in its nature includes the three 
preceding ; and fo it is alfo in the Threes. 
As to the three Woes, this gradation has 
been fpoken to in §. x, and xiii above, 
and we fhall take a yet fuller view of it be- 
low in §. XXIV, XXXI, Liii, and alfo in the 
Expofition of thefe texts C. vi. 8, 9; viii. 12; 
ix. 14, 15; xii. I, 4; xiv. 2; xv. i, 2; xvi. 
II; xvii. 3; xix. 7; XX. 8; xxii. i, 6. By 
this th^ pretended equality of Periods is eifec- 
tually confuted. 


But efpecially the Seventh is always the 
moft important, or even more important 
than all the fix together. For under the 
feventh feal are comprehended the {qw^vi 

Part, I. §. xxiv, xxv, xxvi. 117 
trumpets : and under the trumpet of the 
fevcnth angel, the feven vials, along with 
feveral other things. So alfo the vial of tlie 
fevcnth angel exceeds all the former. 
For this reafon the Seventh is always 
uflier*d in by a preparation for it, as being 
the moft important. The preparation for 
the feventh »S'e'^/ confiils in the fealine of the 
hundred and forty-four thoufand, C. vii. 
The preparation for the' I'riimpet of the fe- 
venth Angel, in the folemn oath in C. x, xi. 
The preparation for the Vial of the feventh 
angel, in an admonition to Vv^atchfulnefs, 
C. xvi. 15. And therefore this Preparation 
cannot properly be look'd upon as any part 
cfthejixth leal, or of the trumpet or vial of 
the fixth angel. In every Sixth the aitair in 
hand is, as it were, broken off, and in the 

Seve?2th refumed and comuleated. 



In the often-mentioned Spheres, and alfo 
clfev/here, one circumftance and expreffion 
always refers to the others, and that in fuch 
a manner that they have many things like, 
and many unlike one another. Now a re- 

ii8 Introduction. 

gular comparing of what is like or unlike 
in each is a very great help to the under- 
ftanding of them. This we will illuftrate 
by examples. 

I. Every one of the {even Epiftles con- 
tains a glorious Tit/e of Jesus Christ, a 
TeJiimo?2y concerning the ftate of the Angel 
of the church, an Admonition fuitable to 
that ftate, and a Promife to him that over- 
Cometh. But only the Church of Smyrna 
had, beiides thefe, 7iotice given of a tribu- 
lation of ten days ; and the Angel of the 
fame church is exhorted to be faithful unto 
death y inftead of the coming of the Lord 
notified to the other fix churches. 

II. Of the firft, fecond, and fourth liv- 
ing Creature it is faid, it was like a Lion, 
a young Bull, an Eagle : on the contrary 
the third had a Face as a Man. 

III. The Horfeman in the firft Seal has 
a Bow: he in the fecond gets a Sword: he 
in the third has a Balance : the Horfeman 
in the fourth has 7io fiich Emblem^ but in- 
ftead of that he has a Name^ Death. 

IV. Under the Trumpets of the three 
laft Angels very many things are doubly ex- 

Part i. §. xxvr. 119 

preffed. For thtjive Months of the Locufts, 
in the firft Wo, are mentioned twice-, as it 
were for a warning that in thofe that follow 
we fliould take notice of thefe expreffions 
that are lefs manifejlly double. In the fecond 
Wo, the Hour and the Day and the Month 
and the Tear of the four Angels is mention- 
ed but once; but this is compenfated by the 
Nu?nber of the Horfemen which belongs to 
this fame period of time. Alfo the Non- 
chronos and tlie many Kings -^ likewife the 
forty-two Months of the treading under foot 
of the holy City, and the one thoufand two 
hundred andfixty Days of the two Witneffes, 
and many other things, are fet over againft 
one another in C. x, xi. To the illuflrious 
Woman in labour are afcribed, firft, one 
thoufaiidtwo hundired and fixty Days ^ and after- 
ward, a Time and lUmes and half a T'ime. 
In the third Wo, the Beaft has forty-two 
Months and the Number fx hundred andfixty- 
fx. Hereafter come the thoufand years ^ three 
times doubled. The new Jerufalem mea- 
fures twelve thoifand Furlongs and one hun- 
dred and forty 7neafures of a man, that is of 
the angel. What all this and much more 

I20 Introduction. 

of the fame kind means, will be found in 

the proper places. 


From the comparifcn of fuch circum- 
flances we may even deduce what thofe 
Words and Phrafes that have often various 
fignifications, as Angela Heaven^ Sun, Moo?!, 
StaVy Sea, Earth, I'ree, Head, Horn, here- 
after, quickly, &c. are to lignlfy in each 
place. A Counter ftands without any hazard 
of miftake, fometimes for one value, fome- 
times for another, only as it is placed even 
with others or between the rows : and the 
fame is the cafe with fuch Words. 


This Prophecy has a "very particular vieisj 
to the people of IfraeL Even the reproofs of 
the falfe Jews are a commendation of the 
true, C. ii. 9 > iii. 9. One of the Elders 
fpeaks C. v. 5, like an Ifraelite, The hun- 
dred forty 'four thoifand that were fealed 
were of the twelve ^tribes of Ifrael; and in 
general the frequent mention of I'ribes points 
to this People. Of a piece with this is the 
mention m^ade of King David, C. iii. 7 5 v- 
55 xxii. 16; the Prophets^ C. x. 7^ the 

Part i. §. xxviii. 121 

Holy City, C. xi. 2 ; the Htll of Zion, C. 
xiv. I; the Song of Mofes, C. xv. 3 ; Arma- 
geddon, C. xvi. 16; Gog and Magog, C. xx. 
8. The very Greek file of the Apocalypfe 
agreeing fo much with the Hebrew idiom 
points to Ifrael'y and as in C. xviii. 13 a 
Latin word in the midft of the Greek text 
points to Rome, and Jer. x. 1 1 a Chaldaick 
verfe in the middle of the Hebrew text to 
the Chaldeans -, fo do the Hebrew words, 
Abaddon, Satan, Katigor, Amen, Hallelujah^ 
&c. in a particular manner to the Hebrews, 
In the old Teftament almojl all the hijiory is 
that of the people of Ifrael-, but fince tlie 
days of 'titus and Adrian it is fcarcely re- 
garded even as a By -work. No man has 
more ufe for it than an Expoiitor of the 
Revelation, as this Prophecy extends from 
the old Jeriifalem which was dellroyed by 
the Romans, even to the new 3 and thus this 
holy people of Ifrael is of fo high Diftindlion 
as reaches even into Eternity, C. xxi. 12, 
24. The Apoftle of the Gentiles himfelf 
fpeaks, on all occafions, of the Gentiles as 
only Partakers with Ifrael In AJia in par- 


122 Introduction. 

ticular were many IfraeliUs^ which were firft 
converted by St. Paul, and afterward con- 
firmed by St. Peter^s Epiftles, from Babylon 
onward, A6ts xxi. i > i Pet. i. i. Thus in 
thefe feven Churches of Afia the frjl Set 
were IfraeliteSy and belonged fpecially to St. 
John's infpedion» Lightfoot, in Hor. ad i 
Cor. p. 270, fays, much to the purpofe, 
V' James, Feter, and John went to the Cir- 
*' cumcifion, and we can fhew the diocefe 
" of each of them. James had Palejline 
" and Syria: Peter, Babylon and AJfyria -, 
'' and Jo/my the Hellenijis, particularly in 
" AJia, and farther on." Hence it is that 
AJia was fo proper a place for St. John to 
fend the Revelation to. In Patmos he had 
AJia and the Landoflfrael together in view. 

At its proper time this will help great- 
ly to the Conveijion of Ifrael, when Ifrael 
fhall underftand what things yet avait 
him, by virtue of this Book. Whoever 
has the ability and opportunity to preis 
home this argument, let him do it. 

Part ii. §. xxix. 123 



?^^^'^HE Obfervations and Reflexions 
^ T 5^ which we have made hitherto, and 
h^^^M much of what will follow after or 
may be inferred from them, all tlie faithful 
from St. John's days had the opportunity to 
difcern, and to ufe for their benefit, even 
before the fulfilling of the Prophecy began, 
without the knowledge which we have from 
hiftory of .the things which have followed 
fince, without a glimpfe of our times and 
our greatly enlarged asra : yet thefe make a 
very confiderable ihare of the proper medi- 
tations on all the parts of the Revelation. 
Wherefore thofe are greatly miflaken who 
think that one ought to make the principal 
point of the expofition of the Prophecy to 
confifl: in a ftrain'd interpretation with re- 
ference to the civil or ecclefiaftical hiftory of 
ihcprefent Times, or even in an idle fearch 
after what may be the nex^ thing to come, 

124 Lntroduction. 

that is, indeed, after premature news-, by 
which however a puzzled conjefturer or 
diviner would be as little improved, if he 
fliould guefs it before-hand, as if he had 
come to his iirft knowledge of it by the 
event. Tet it is right that we have an eye 
aifo to the Scope of the Book (which is 
properly prophetical) and attend to the ful- 
filling of it ; that we may the better ac- 
knowledge and magnify God in his faith- 
fulnefs, wifdom, juftice and almighty pov/er; 
and learn to accommodate ourfelves to the 
times according to the various patterns fet 
before us in the prophecy, 


This Prophecy is like a cloud richly full 
of frudtifying rain that fpreads over a large 
extent of land, which flieds fome part of 
its waters on e^'oery ground in its turn by 
ftreaks or fpots. What belongs to each 
particular time the believers of that age may 
turn to their advantage in a fpecial manner, 
and that too from time to time more and 
more fully. Thofe things chiefly that ftand 
foremoft in the book turned to good account 
to the antients^ even in the time of the 

Part ii. §. xxx, xxxr. 125 
completion : other things are ?2ow a fulfillingj 
and thefe are the moft needful, the moft 
confiderable, and moft falutarv for ics. The 
remaining part belongs principally to pojieri- 
ty-y and the farther the completion advances, 
fo much the clearer will the whole be. 
Let us now confider the Prophecy with 
regard to our own T^irnes^ and we fhall find 
thefe folio v/ing points that deferve to be 
ferioufly confidered by us. 

I. The Completion began very foon after 
the book was written, C. i. i. 

II. The Completion reacheth even to the 
End of the world, C. xx. 1 1 ; yea quite in- 
to Eternity, C. xxii. 5. 

III. The Com.pletion extends, according 
to the exadly coherent order of the book, 
from St. John's being in Patmos, without 
interruption, through all the remaining ages, 
in one range, to the end of the world, C. iv. 
I : at leajl, this holds true with regard to 
the feven trumpets , which is fufficient for 
our prefcnt purpofe. 

IV. The things that muft come to pafs 
iCcme quickly znd Jpeedi/y to pafs, except thofc 

126 Introduction. 

that are exprefsly comprifed in determinate 
times of great length, C. i. i. The Prophecy 
is Hke a piece of mufick which goes, on the 
whole, prejlo (which is mark'd once for all 
at the beginning of the lines) but in the mid- 
dle goes now and then piano ^ which is figni- 
fied by particular marks at the proper places. 
V. The firft Wo ends before the fecond 
begins ; and the fecond ends before the 
third begins. For when the firft wo is paft, 
it is not faid there are come^ but there come 
or are comings yet two woes hereafter ; and 
again, when the fecond wo is paft, 'tis not 
faid the third wo is come, but behold // cometh 
•or is corning quickly, C. ix. 125 xi. 14. 
Whoever takes thefe phrafes for mere forms 
of tranfition (none of "which fort are to be 
-met wdth in the Revelation) charges the 
prophecy with great inaccuracy. A lad at 
fchool would not make ufe of the words, 
to pafs, to come, behold, hereafter, and quickly, 
to fuch purpofe in an exercife. In fa6t 
there are two intervals between the firft 
and fecond, and the fecond and third woes. 
The word, to come, in every place intimates 
fomething real. 

Part ii. §. xxxi. 127 

VI. In the firft of the now cited phrales^ 
we find the word hereafter^ and in the fe- 
€ond the word quickly, Thefe two words 
would not be fo rightly compared with o- 
ther paflages in this book as with one ano- 
ther, and mull: be interpreted from fuch 
eomparifon : the conclufion from which is, 
that the arrival of the third wo is at a much 
lefs diftance from the end of the fecond than 
it was from the end of the firft, when it was. 
only faid to be coming hereafter, 

VII. To the third wo belongs the Jhort 
time the Devil, fo full of wrath, had upon 
the earth, C. xii. 12. 

VIII. Thy. forty "two months of the Beaft 
make the moft part oithat fliort time,C.xiii.5«. 

IX. The fecond wo lafts an hcitr^ and a 
day, and a month, and a year ', the firft, 7?i'^ 
months, C. ix. 

X. In cppoftion to all the three woes to- 
gether is fet that Gofpel or glad Tidings 
which the angel proclaims before the end 
of the third wo : and fince this is called 
glad T'idings of an (a;wi/) ^ Mvum, there is 

''The Englilh Tranflators unacquainted with thefe ideas 
render thefe words the (or better, as in the margin) an ivir- 
Ufiing Gof^eL 

128 Introduction. 

therefore, from the flying of this angel to 
the end of the world, yet remaining an 
JEiJim y which muil be a pretty ^ long pe- 
riod of time, C. xiv. 6. 

XL Since the time of St. John's being 
at Patmos there are already paffed upv/ards 
of "" one thoufand fix hundred and forty 
years, C. i. lo. And yet 

XII. Babylon is ftill {landing at this 
day, C. xviii ; nor is the treading underfoot 
of the holy City come to an end, C. xi. 2 — 13. 

XIIL The Overthrow of the Beajl comes 
not till after the dejlrudion of Babylon^ C. 
xvii. 16. 

XIV. The thoufand years ^ in which Satan 
is bound, do not begin till the overthrow of 
the Beaji, C.xix. x. See §. xi. 

XV. After thefe thoufand years Satan 
is to be loofed a little feaf on, C. xx. 3. 

XVI. At the beginning of that little fcafon 
the fouls of them that were beheaded, &c, 
live : and from that tim.e till the living 

» Viz, for the Happinefs of it to make amends for the 
miferies of all the three Woes, which it is fet to counter-ba- 
lance; fee S- XI— XVI ; where this is plainly Ihewn. 

"» Viz, A°. 1740, when this was publilhed : 'tis now 
1660 years from A". 96. 

Part ir. §. xxxi. jzg 

again of the refl of the dead are one thoiifajid 
years, C. xx. 4. 

XVII. The World is not to laft quite fo 
long after the death of Christ as it had 
flood (viz, about " three thoufand nine hun- 
dred and eighty years) before it, C. i. 3 ; 
Heb. ix. 26. 

XVIII. The Fulfilling of the Prophecy 
muft not be reckoned to fall either moftly 
in the firft centuries, nor too much in the 
times that are yet to come ; but be applied, 
by a nearly equal partition, to the whole 
courfe of the times of the New Teftament, 
in fuch a manner that the whole body of 
all true hiftory of Jews and Gentiles, Chrif- 
tians and Turks, may concur to the expofi- 
tion, from firft to laft, C. iv. i : yet fo that 
in the mean time invifible things neither be 
negleded nor interrupt the other, §. iv. 

The xii'^ of thefe points, on which 
much depends, namely, that Babylon flmdd 
yet be jlanding in our time, our predecefTors 
could not fee. So it is no arrogance in us 
to hope and endeavour to go beyond them 

« Exaftly, three thoufand nine hundred and feventy-one 
years and fix months. 

130 Introduction. 

in the underftanding of the prophecy, by 
making ufe of the great advaiitage which a 
view of our prefent time gives us. Whoever 
is in any doubt about this, or the firft, or 
any other of thefe points, let him turn to the 
paflages of the text cited after them and the 
expoiition of them : and whoever is in hafle 
prefently to have the whole compared with 
hiftory and illuftrated by it, may pleafe to 
compare it with the table in the Conclulion;, 
but neither admit nor rejedl what is there 
more nearly determined, till he fhall have 
examined the proofs he will find in the 
progrefs of thefe meditations.. 

From hence flow thefe following jull 
Conclufions 5 

I. That the middle wo, namely the fecond, 
that broke out about Euphrates ^ muft be inter- 
preted of the power of the Saracefis, after the 
death oiMahomet^ under the firft and moil; per- 
nicious *' Caliphs. People may ftrive to place 
this wo higher or lower in hiflory than about 
the days oi Mahomet -, but then they will ru7i 
counter to the jufl-now mentioned points \ 

f So the Kings or Princes of the Saracens were titled. 

Part ii. §. xxxii. 131 

and befides will ?iot fold €i\htv fufficient room 
for the great things that, in the text, go 
before the lecond wo, and the yet greater 
things that, in the text, follow after the 
fecond wo, nor any hiflories of times paft 
to fuit them. 

II. That the iirft wo, whatever it was, 
was over before Mahomefs, days. 

III. That the trumpets of the four firft 
angels followed, ?20f long after the vifion of 
St. John. 

IV. That the third wo is not yet over^ 
tho' it began a long time ago. 

We may juftly look upon fhefe four Con- 
clufions as the Foundation-ftones of the build- 
ing of a true Expofition, as far as concerns 
the Comparing of the Prophecy with the 
Events. For whoever compares thefe Con- 
clulions with what has been faid hitherto in 
the Introdu^ion, and then reads over the 
text, will, it is prefumed, perceive that all 
the parts of the building are regularly con- 
nected together. People may turn and wind 
the thing this way and that way as they 
pleafe, yet they will never make out anything 
much different from this, tliat will hold. 

132 Introduction. 



r^'^^'miUS far even thofe that have no 
^ ^ ^ extraordinary tafte for great exad;- 
k-'^^j^jJ nefs in Ch?'072ology may have wil- 
lingly born us company; and fuch w^ill even 
thus go a great way in underftanding the pro- 
phecy, with only the help of what we have 
already advanced. But I fhould be un-^ 

grateful to the Fountain of light, if I fhould 
conceal that the Supputation of the Times or 
the Chronology has been that very track 
by walking in which I came to this Analyfis, 
though I have now, in the foregoing part of 
this IntroduBion^ laid it before others with- 
out the computation of the times. The 
right Analyfu of the SubjeS-matter and the 
triieRecko?ii?ig oftheT'inm or Chronology greatly 
affift and fupport one another. Hitherto we 
have mention'd only the party we had moft 
Qccafion for, of the Analyiis of the Subject- 
matter: now we will treat of the Chronology 
7ncre at large-^ that hereafter in the Expofi- 

Part hi. §. xxxiii, xxxiv. 133 
tion we may not be long detained about it, 
but may be the more at freedom to confider 
the Things themfelves. 

Now at this ftep, when we fliould prepare 
ourfelves for an enquiry into the prophetical 
times, many will be feized with a dread or 
averfion. But as Jesus Christ in his Re- 
velation has revealed T'hwgs and 'Times to- 
gether; though we may now and then con- 
fider the one without the other and reap be- 
nefit therefrom, yet muft we not feparate 
them too far from one another, fince He 
has not joined them together in vain. The 
Things are the principal, and the Times are 
difcovered for the fake of the things. We 
mufi: give each their due in a fuitable mea- 
fure. One that curforily picks up fomething 
and repeats that, ads like a traveller w^ho 
on coming to a ftrange city fhould content 
himfelf with having heard the clock ftrike 
twice or thrice, and never trouble himfelf to 
enquire after the conftitution ecclefiaftical 
or civil, or any other thing worthy his no- 
tice. Now the Revelation is like a great 
and elegant, magnificent and facred Tem- 
ple, which is not without its clock, its bells 

134 Introduction. 

and its dial, to give notice of the hours at 
which divine fervice is to be performed : 
but a perfon of a right difpofition not only 
looks at the dial on the out-fide, but rather 
goes into tlie temple at the proper hour. 
Gifts are diverfe in this refpect alfo, and, 
to go on with the comparifon, tho' many- 
leave the care of the hours to them to whom 
it particularly belongs, and who by their at- 
tention thereto are ferviceable to the church; 
yet fuch people are neceffary. Whoever 
goes upon a wrong Chronology, certainly 
fo far falls iliort in the Subjed-matter : but 
he who judges rightly of this^ will never 
advance any thing that will be found repug- 
nant to the true Chronology, even tho* he 
iliould be unacquainted with it. In the 
inean time if Ave fet aiide the conlideration 
-of the Times, we ihall not be able, either to 
nidge rightly of the Things themfelves that 
are included in certain determinate times (at 
leaft evidently and fully) — or to diftinguifh 
the events and occurrences of one j^ge from 
thofe of another, that often refemble them, 
and even fometimes look more plauiible ; — 
^r any clearly to prove to others that 

Part hi. §. xxxiv, xxxv. 135^ 
this or that particular interpretation is right 

or wrong. 'T'is the true Ch^ouclogy that 

turns the J c ale at lajl. 

If any one chufes to ftop here, there is 
no con draining him to go on. But if he 
has a mind to make a trial how far we may 
wade into this part of Chronology without 
going out of our depth, he will at leaft not 
wholly loofe his labour. 

Sometimes mention is made of T'imes 
in a general way^ as C. i. 3, the time is at 
hand', ii. 21, /pace to repent -, iii. 10, the hour 
of temptation^ &c. But our inquiiy is not 
now about thefe, but about deter?ninate^ 
numbered, meafured periods of t2?ne that have 
a relation to one another. And here let us 
fee how many and what variety oi fuch times 
prefent themfelves to us throughout the book j 

( I ) ten Days of tribulation to the Church 
of Smyrna : 

( 2 ) a Chrojios, to the fouls under the altar : 

(3) about the fpace of half an Hour, in 
which there was filence in heav^en : 

(4) five Months of the locufts, in the firft 
wo ; twice over : 

136 Introduction. 

(5) an Hour, and a Day, and a Mo?ith, 
and a T^^r, of the four angels in the fe- 
cond wo : 

(6) a Non-chronos, or fpace of time lefs 
than a Chronos, between the oath of the an- 
gel and the finiihing of the myftery of God : 

(7) forty-two Months, during v/hich the 
holy city fhall be trodden under foot : 

(8) the one thoufand two hundred and 
lixty Days of the two witneifes : 

(9) the three Z)/^jj and half of the fame: 

(10) the one thoufand two hundred and 
lixty Days of the woman : 

(11) the fhort T^hjie of the dragon, in 
which the third wo falls : 

(12) the Hlme, and Times, and half a 
'Time, of the woman : 

(13) the forty-two Mo7iths of the beaft^ 
in the third wo : 

(14) the Number of the beaft, 666: 
(That this belongs to this head we fliall 
find hereafter.) 

(15) an Aion or Mvum, attributed to 
the good tidings proclaimed by the angel : 

(16) 2ifiort Space, that the other king is 
to continue : 

Part hi. §. xxxv. 137 

(17) one Hour m which the ten kings re- 
ceive power with the beaft -, likewife one 
Hour of the judgment and defolation of 
Babylon : 

(18) a thoufand Tears, in which Satan 
is bound : 

(19) a little Seafon or ChronoSy in which 
he is to be let loofe : 

(20) a thoufand Tears , in which the fouls 
reign with Christ : 

^ [The word I'ime, in N^ 1 1 and 1 2, is 
put for the Greek word (j^at^o?) Kairos. In 
N\ 2, 6, and 19, the Greek word {x^ovoq) 
Chronos is retained, and in N°. 19 it may be 
retained, tho' our tranflation renders itfcafon. 
So alfo is the Greek word (^ccim) Aion, or the 
hatin /Evujn, which is form'd from it. 

The iirft of thefe words. Time, is by 
means of our tranflation, become familiar to 
us in the fenfe of a certain determinate fpace 
of time. Our language has no word to ex- 
prefs fuch periods of time as are here meant 
by Chronos and Aioji.'] 


P This paragraph, concerning the TVords ofTimf ufed in 
this Tranjlatio?!, I fubllitute for the Author's explanation of 
his German Therms. 

138 Introduction. 

Now we h3.YC /even Naines of Parts of 
Time, viz. Hour^ Day, Month, Tear, T^ime, 
Chronos and Aion, Th^foiirjir/i are of more 
determinate figniiication than the three latter. 
Of thefe laft therefore we fhall fay nothing 
till we have paved our way to them by help 
of the former. 

Whether an expofitor who dilpenfes 
with and excufes himfelf from 2iny Refolution 
of all thefe times, or looks upon them as 
of no concern, gives the due honour to the 
wifdom of God, let any man judge. Cer- 
tainly they muft be all throughly regarded, 
attended to, and treated of in fuch a man- 
ner as is fuitable to the majefty of God and 
the importance of this fhort Manifesto; 
not as a bare decoration^ garniture or imple-r 
ment, without which the book might ne- 
verthelefs have had its right form and faih- 
ion ; but as an important and necejfary part, 
efpecially confidering that many of thefe pe- 
riods are expreffed, deliberately and with 
great emphafis, oftner than once (Pfal. Ixii. 
11). If any man cannot, for his part, fee 
th€ great importance of this, yet ought he 

Part hi. §. xxxv, xxxvi. 139 
not to be fo rafh as to feek to derogate front 
it, or to iet other people againft it. 


The above-enumerated periods confifl: of 
Numbers^ and of Names of Times. The 
Numbers many are willing to take as pre- 
cifely as will fuit with their fcheme ; but 
when they don't come right, they take re- 
fuge in this evalion, ' It is a certain number 

* put for an uncertain, we muft not take it^^ 
^ precifely: God has referved fuch knowledge 

* to himfelf ?' But here, what we are talkins: 
of, is wbatGoD has revealed in the Scriptitres-y 
and in the Scriptures it is taken exadlly, 
precifelyy and certainly. In the Revelation, 
C. viii. I, you find the particle about ufed, 
when it might be a little more or lefs than 
the time there mentioned ; a token that in 
other places, where there is no fuch word, 
we may not prefume to take the time to be 
indefijiite. A certain round number, or in 
its figures refembling a round number, may 
fometimes be put for an uncertain, as Matth. 
xviii. 12, 21, 22, 24, 28 i and then an in- 
terpreter is not to be over-curious in his re- 
fearches. But where there arc uneven^ im^^ 

140 Introduction, 

common numbers, confifting of 'various ci- 
phers^ and even Fraciions^ we muft not 
take them as we do a proverbial expref- 
fion. Thus there is no making one thoiifand 
two hundred and fifty y or one thoiifand two 
hundred and fe^venty^ out of the one thoufand 
two hundred and fixty days of the two wit- 
neffes: nay, not one thoufand two himd?'ed fif- 
ty-nine and a half or ojie thoufand two hundred 
fixty and a haf: hkewife neither three nor 
four days out of their three and a haf days j 
although perhaps it may be no matter for 
an hour or two over or under the half day. 
Surely when an Hour^ and a Day^ and a 
Month, and a Tear is mentioned, wx muft 
not on any account negledl the Hour, The 
Text is an Original, the Expofition is as 
it were a Copy of it. The nearer this comes 
up to that fo much the better it is. And 
now we come to treat of the Names of time. 


The firft in nature, of all the Names of 
time is a Day : for from the divifion of it 
arife hours, and of days are made months, 
years, &c. Therefore many expofitors begin 
their refolutions of the times with the Day r 

Part hi. §. xxxvii. 141 

with whofe method we muft comply while 
we are examining their opinions. Now 
whether the many periods of time extradied 
from the text in the order in w^hich they lie 
there, in §. xxxv, are all to be put on the 
footing of a natural day, properly fo called, 
or all on that of a prophetical day fo called 
in a figurative fenfe (which many take to 
be a natural year) or fome on the one and 
fome on the other \ is impoffible to be de- 
termined now^ while we are but juft entring 
on the refolution of the times. However 
there is no doubt but that in the three Woes 
we are to put the five months of the locufts, 
the hour and the day and the 77ionth and the 
year of the four angels, and the forty-two 
months of the beaft upon a like footing ; 
whether it turn out to be that of a natural 
or of a prophetical Day : for otherwife the 
duration of the three woes would remain an 
infoluble riddle, and we fhould loofe the 
proportion or even the gradation that is in 
them. Therefore we will begin "^ again 

at this place as the eafieft. 

^ As above in §, ix. 

142 Introduction. 


The queftion. What a Day /j, in the 
three Woes ? is not to be anfwered fo very 
haftily : Firft we will lay down this pofition ; 
A Day here camiot fignify a whole Tear-, 
For thofe times of the three woes toge- 
ther, which we have mentioned in §. xxxvii, 
by themfelves alone make up at leaft fixty 
months. Now if a Day is here equivalent 
to a Year, and a prophetical Month is to 
confift of thirty fuch days, and a Year of 
twelve fuch months, according to the opi- 
nion of many : thefe fixty months alone 
will take up full one thoufand eight hundred 
Years. And is there room enough too be- 
fides for the things that come to pafs before 
the firil wo, for the interval between the 
firft and fecond wo, for that between the 
fecond and third wo, and for all that paffes 
in the third wo itfelf, before and after the 
forty-two months of the beaft, for the ever- 
lajiing Gofpel which the angel announceth 
tov/ard the lateft times of the beaft, and 
laftly for the ample contents of the xx'^ chap- 
ter ? Or {hall we, v/hen prefs'd with thefe 
difficulties, take up with the fancy of thofe 

Part in. §. xxxviii. 143 

who of the thoufand years make but a 
thoufand months or the age of a man ? 

If any fliould pretend that by a Day is 
meant a Tear in feveral places of the Scrip- 
tures, as Numb, xiv. 33, 34; Ezek. iv. 5, 
6 ; Dan. ix. 24, 25, 26; and Z/2/>^^xiii. 33; 
he is to be anfwered thus, The fourth of 
thefe places fpeaks of natural days ; as is re- 
marked in the Harmony of the E'vangelijls 
§. 126. The third is nothing to our pre- 
fent purpofe ; for the word Day is not men- 
tioned in it, but the Week immediately be- 
tokens a njoeek of years. In the fecond, a 
Day is only to reprefent a Year. And in the 
firft, a year of punifliment is appointed for 
each day of their fm : It is not faid, Your 
children fliall wander in the wildernefs forty 
days^ that is, forty years. The word day 
is not any where in the Scripture put for 
the word year ; as Bifliop Forbes^ on the A- 
pGcalypfe, p. 85, has ' long ago obferved : 
but if it was fo put any where elfe, it does 
not follow that it mull be fo in St. John too; 

*■ In the time of Kins: James the firfl, that excellent man 
was Bp. of Aberdeen and Chancellor of that Univerfity ; in 
which and in his Diocefe he made fuch a reformation and im- 
provement as make his memory to be honoured to this d?.y. 

144 Introduction. 

as the Meafure in RenjeL xxi is different from 

that in Ezek. xl. 

If one comes at firjl to the knowledge of 
the Times by the help of the k?20wledge he 
has of the Subied-matter, he will aftej-wards 
come to a moi'e exadi knowledge of the Matter 
by tlie help of that of the Times : and fo 
always alternately (yet no circidus vitiofiis) 
every fc7vner difcovery will be brought to 
greater exadtnefs by xht following. 

Thus the prefent argument is remarkably 
ilrengthened by tliis confideration, that we 
cannot put the beginning of the fecond wo 
before Mahomet, For the Hour and the 
Day and the Month and the Year make, 
by the Day of a year long, three hundred 
and ninety one years. Now if we fliould be- 
gin juft at the year 622, in which the cala- 
mities of Maho?nctif?n broke out (for farther 
back w^e cannot go) it reaches to the year 
1013. What fliall we reckon after that 
year for the Interval betw^een the fecond and 
third wo? Where ihall the forty-two Months 
of the beaft, which by this way of reckon- 
ing lafl: 1260 years, I will not fay end, but 
even begin ? Where fhall we difpofe of all 

Part hi. §. xxxviii, xxxix. 14^ 
the events under the third wo, that happen 
before and after thefe forty-two months oi" 
1260 years, from C. xii. 12 to C. xx. i ? 
And where is there room for the times men- 
tioned in the xx'^ chapter, together with 
the everlafting Gofpel ? 

Again; How can (to fpeak in particular 
of the third Wo) the time that the enraged 
Devil hath, which begins a confiderable 
while before the forty-two months and does 
not end till after them, be called 2iJJ:ort oney 
when the forty-two months alone lafl 1^60 
whole years ? Certainly the fhort time which 
the Devil hath, who is the more enraged 
on thh very account, viz. of its fhortnefs, 
IS fhorter than that of the thoufand years of 
his being bound, which comes afterwards i 
and fo alfo much more is the power of the 
beaft during his forty-two months fhorter 
than the thoufand years in which thofe 
reign who were put to death by the beaft* 


So then we need not go far for an anfwer 
to that queftion, What is the matter that 
hitherto nothing has hit right in e:>cpotinding this 

146 Introduction. 

Book, even with thofe who value it moji highly^: 
and whyfo many of their Prognojiics have fail- 
ed? The Reformers themfelves did not, but 
afterwards 7nany protejlant expofitors, tho' 
not all thofe,. nor thofe alone, have highly 
cryed up this Tear-day or Day fignifying a 
Year 5 and tius out of the forty-^two Months, 
the 1260 Days, and the three and a half 
Times have made one calamitous period of 
1260 Years. Then they pitched upon fome 
year in the fifth or fome earlier or later cen- 
tury, that appeared to be a remarkable one, 
and added to that the 1260 Years : the fum 
gave the term or end of their period. There 
were fo many fiich terms, that at laft fome 
one or other of the inventors of them fhould, 
one would think, have hit by chance on the 
right term, tho' he had ijot found out either 
the right beginning or the right length of 
that period which he made choice o£ This 
pretended period oi 1260 Years was like a 
large chefl: where every kind of heterogene- 
ous things (or things of different natures) 
were thrown in together : but the true Apo- 
calyptical periods are like many fmall drawers 
in a fine and artfully contrived cabinet, each 

Part in. §. xxxix. 147 

of which contains only things homogeneous 
or of the fame kind. 

He who has once laid afide this prejudice 
of the Tear-Dayy will find out the root of 
inoft of ^Q forced interpretations : and if he 
knows of any inquifitive friend, will caution 
him agairrfl: a fruitlefs labour in which ma- 
ny have wafted the greateft part of their 

Most interpreters have begun their ima- 
ginary period of 1260 years, at the year 476 
and before it. But as that term is already 
paft, in the year 1736, without any confi- 
derable event : fo, fox a long time after the 
year 476, there arc not to be found in hif- 
toiy any more later Epochs- for the 1260 
years in which a man might take refuge 
with any plaufibility. And yet there is a 
geiiernl ExpeBation of a 7iearly approaching 
Revohition^ even among thofe who obferve 
only the prefent conjun(!l:ure of aiFairs, with- 
out any view at the fame time to the word 
of Prophecy. This period of 1260 years, 
and confequently the Year-day, has yet 
fome patrons that have been accufto/ued to 

143 Introduction. 

defend it ; but it will foon totally vanifh, 
compare the Gnoirion on Revel, xi. 2. 
Matters might be more eafily adjufted 
by thofe that fhould take a Day in the 
lifual acceptation of the word for twenty-four 
Hours, This opinion is not only very com- 
mon in the church of Rome, but alfo at 
this time much liked by many Proteftants 
in Germany. Peter/ens, Syftem ftands upon 
this footing as it interprets the birth of the 
Man-Child of the converfion of the people 
of Ifrael'y which is yet to come 5 but which 
according to him muft be before the fhort 
time, viz. three years and a half, of the 
diftrefles under Antichrift : which implies 
that the times of the three woes are to be 
underftood in the fenfe of common Days. 
Now tho* many of thofe who have a hearty 
concern for the knowledge of the truth, 
adhere fo ftrongly to this opinion, that it 
might be hard to perfwade them fo much as 
to give a hearing to another interpretation ; 
yet let mc in all good humour, allure them, 
they are mijlaken. 

Part hi. §. xl. 149 

These points will often fall in- our way 
in the courfe of our meditations : but parti- 
cularly the common Day will by no means 
fuit in the three Woes. For, 

I. In the firft wo, men were not killed, 
but tormented. Now it is true that very 
great plagues may pafs over very quickly, 
as in the cafe of the feven laft plagues: but 
here, in the cafe of the Locufts, no plague, 
however great otherwife, which lafts but 
five common months, can bear any propor- 
tion to the contents of the whole book, and 
elpecially to the trumpets of the foregoing 
and following angels. 

XL In the fecond wo, the third part of 
men were killed : and this looks more like 
a long4ajling plague of War (by w^hich the 
furvivors ought to have been brought off 
from that idolatry which had continued fo 
many ages, and from their other crimes) 
than a ravage that was o'ver in a year and a 
few days (as the conpnon Day would make 
it), and after which the remaining two 
thirds of men go on in their idolatry and 
other crimes without repentance. 

15Q Introduction. 

IIL In the fame wo, the Cavalry, the 
number of whom St. John heard, and has 
^xpreffed fo precifely, confifts of fome hun- 
dred milhons of foldiers. Whether all the 
countries of the world can afford fuch a pro- 
digious number of men and horfe in a com- 
mon Hour, Day, Month, and Year, I leave 
to be eftimated by thofe who underftand 
politics and the affairs of war. Some learn- 
ed men have made it their ftudy to reckon the 
number of manldnd living at one time : the 
largeft reckoning might amount to a thotifand 
millions^ and the loweft to half the number- 
How is it that the number which St. John 
heard comes fo near to this ? How much 
finaller muft be the number of Adult people, 
how much fmaller that of the Males, how 
much that of Soldiers, and yet lefs that of 
Horfemen ! Befides that all thefe horfemcn 
-are diffind: from the third part of men 
whom they killed, and from the remaining 
two thirds that were not killed. 

IV. In the third wo, the forty-two Months 
of the beaft cannot by any means be re* 
ftrained to three and a half common years ; 
reckoning, as I do, tliefe forty-two months 

Part hi. §. xl, xli. 15T 

to only the five firfl; heads of the beaft. But 
thofe who extend them to all the feven 
heads fucceeding one another, will find it 
ftill more difficult to adjuft their Reckoning. 
In the time of the continuance of the beaft, 
after the forty-two months are elapfed^ falls 
out the laft fhew of the pride of Babylon, 
and the judgment of her : and a Jl:ort con- 
tinuance is afcribed to only the laft of the 
feven kings or heads of the beaft : fo that 
his immediate predeceflbr, nay even the. 
five other kings that were yet more early, 
muft, by virtue of the antithefis, have a 
longer continuance ; and yet under the fhort 
continuance of the laft there happen fueh 
things as require a confiderable fpace of time. 
More arguments againft the Year-day 
and againft the Day of twenty-four hours wilt 
arife hereafter in §. xliv. N° xi. 


If the prefent Inquiry into the Times 
was, to fet it at the loweft, of no other ufe 
or advantage than this, that people may 
perceive on what fort of a fowidation fo ma7iy 
indifferent^ Jirained and irregular Epcpoftions 

1^2 Introduction. 

are built : tvtn That would be worth all 
the labour of it; Why is it that the Ro- 
man^catholic Expofitors of this Prophecy 
cannot by any means make their fcheme cbn^ 
fiftent with it? chiefly, indeed, by reafon of 
the badnefs of their caufe ; but next to that, 
becaufe in order to put the beft face upon it 
that they can, they take refuge in the com- 
mon Day of twenty-four hours. The 
Proteftants, as to their caufe, have much 
the better of them: but withall, thofe expo- 
fitors who adhere to the Tear-day are driven 
upon unfurmountable obflacles. On this 
ground then we may fettle our judgment of 
the expofitors of thefe two, ^ndof all the other 
clafTes. For example; the mgtmous Jtirieu 
eagerly embraced and adopted the Year-day, 
and confequently the antichriftian period of 
1260 years.: and therefore it was an eafy 
matter for the eloquent Bojfuet to rebuke 
him, and others in the fame way, for fo 
many inconfiftencies. Hereupon the other 
Champions for the Papacy are become more 
fecure and bolder, and make as if they had 
nothing more to fear now from the Revela- 
tion itfelf, but had fully overcome it, and 

pAitT in. §. XLI, XLII. Ij^ 

Were authorized to pronounce, without far- 
ther examination, all arguments againft the 
Papacy drawn from the Apocalypfe to be 
mere folly and madnefs. See how arrogant- 
ly the Editor of the "Journal de 'Trevoiix^ Apr, 
1706, p. 705, enters the lifts and glories 
(over Vitringa no lefs than over 'Jurieu) in 
Grofius and his followers i But thefe people 
themfelves come off yet much worfe, for 
they ground themfelves on the Day of twen- 
ty-four Hours. Jurieu has managed a good 
caiife badly \ and the Journal has made a bad 
caiife ?iot a whit better, Vitringa has fet afide 
both the year-day and the twenty-four hour- 
day; and fo far departs both from Gi^otim 
and Jurieu, Confequently the proper Evi- 
dence agdnft the Papacy is not overthrown 
by this groundlefs comparifon of Jurieu and 
Vitrifiga. It is better to ufe no reckoning 
of times than a wrong one 3 but a right 
reckoning is ffill better. 


The amomnil of our reafoning hitherto 
is only this^-«-A prophetical Day in thfC three 


154 Introduction. 

Woes is fhorter, and even by virtue of the 
reafons given, conjiderably fiorter than a whole 
Tear ; but longer, and for the fame reafons, 
confiderably longer than a common Day. All 
the Expofitions of the Apocalypfe that are 
in requeft in our days tie themfelves dow^n 
either to the Year-day, or to the twenty- 
four Hour-day : and fincc in that refped; 
they are all of them greatly in the wrong 
(as we have already proved) the true Expo- 
fition mull, by neceffary confequence, be 
grounded on a reckoning of time very con- 
trary to the received opinions. So a lover 
of truth muft from this place forward pre- 
pare himfelf to bear with the prophetical 
Day, let the length of it, refulting from 
our arguments, appear ever fo Jirange to 
him : for an expofitton which has nothing un- 
C07nm07i on this head^ is a falfe one. The 
truth, as in many other cafes, lies certainly 
in the Middky between the two extreams, 
and accordingly in contradiftindlion to both 
thefe fo widely diffant extreams, we fhall, 
when there is occafion, call this the Middle 
Reckoning. The ftraiter and narrower 
the path is, which we now walk in, the lefg 

Part hi. §. xlii. 155 

reafon will any man have to look upon an 
cxpofition grounded on it as erroneous, or 
on his own dillruft of it as a piece of pru- 
dent caution. No body has yet mifs'd his 
way in it ; and, at the worft, a man can- 
not while walking upon it, mifs, his way 
far, I am indeed well afliired that the 
maintainers both of the year-day and twen- 
ty-four hour-day do not /pare me for calling 
in queftion an opinion that is become quite 
habitual to them. But we can do tiothwg a- 
gainji the truth, but for the truth -^ which, 
even in this affair, has already found recep- 
tion with more people, than could have 
been expedted. On the other fide, both 
thefe parties cut out work enough for one 
another, and one of them is ever driving 
the other by turns on fuch in-commodious 
confequences as the Middle Reckoning is 
no way expofed to. We fhall fee too, who, 
after this, will keep up his courage openly 
and fteadily to efpoufe the Year-day or 
twenty-four Hour-day, and charge the mid- 
dle Reckoning widi untruth J altho' it comes 
in for a (hare in every advantage that attends 
either the Day of only twenty-four hours or 


that of a whole y^ar. However, if other 
interpreters will needs abide by the one or 
the other of thefe days -, let the reader at- 
tend carefully whether they argue for them, 
^nd upon what growids^ and whether they 
can fatisfadtorily difprave ,all the evidence 
for the Middle Reckonings or if they do not 
rather chufe to pafs it -over in filence, which 
is certainly a very tinfair ijoay. I hope fuch 
a reader will perceive wher€ 'tis that he can 
find fure footing, and leave that daflardly 
objeftion, ' So ma7iy have e7^red that wejljall 
^ ftever attain to the truth ^ to thoie who 
mU think fo, right or wrong. 
Now pofitiveiy^ what is a prophetical 
Day ? Very lately Mr. Jacob Koch has with 
great diligence enquired into the prophetical 
reckoning of times, in his Expofition of Da- 
7iiely in an Appendix to which he has, a- 
mong other things, a fhojt Sy/lem of the 
Apocalypje : where, with good reafon, he 
cppofeth fometimes the Year-day, fometimes 
the twenty-four Hour-day; but hoUs that 
the prophetical Day is a commo?i Week^ p. ^j^ 
&c. p. 503, &:c. It will not be difagree^ 

Part iij. §. xliii. j^j 

^ble either to this diligent inquirer or to o- 
thers, that I exaniine this opinion a little. 
In the calamitous periods of time mentioned 
in the Revelation he reckons to one prophe- 
tical Day feven common Days, and propor- 
tionably to the Month, and Year or ()c^.i^o?) 
Xairos,, Time. Indeed he proves that fome- 
times the word Sabbath lignifies a Week : but 
not that the word Day ever iignifies fev/:n 
days. But his principal argument is this; 
that diere is neither above the common year 
nor below the common week, nor between 
them, any other meaflire of time that will 
make a prophetical Day. Not o-oer a year^ 
not under a week^ we allow ; for the reafons 
given before in §. xxxviii, &c : but the 
fame reafons prove, §. xl, that the true 
length of a prophetical Day is^^r more than 
a Weeky and therefore muft certainly be to 
be found between the Year and the Week, 
and that in a manner that fuch Days may 
hold good in equal diftaiices after one another, 
and in a ?na?nfold Summing^ according to 
Mr. KGch\ fundamental populate. 

Without doubt there lies fome where in 
this very prophecy a Track which if we fol- 

158 Introduction. 

low we ihall find the length of the prophe- 
tical Days and Months : and therefore we 
enquire after the Months even before the 
Days ; as the three Woes are for the moft 
part comprifed in Months, and among thefe 
the forty-two Months of the Beaft make 
the moft confiderable ihew: we muft there- 
fore confider alfo firft how many days pro- 
perly go to fuch a month. The Track 
juft mentioned may lie in the following re- 
marks. The true meaning, for exam- 
ple, of the faid forty-two Months, lies well 
nigh in the middle, between them who 
make either three and a half, or one thouf- 
and two hundred and fixty common Years 
of them : by, §. xlii. This middle, be- 
tween three and a half, and one thoufand 
two hundred and fixty, runs confiderably 
beyond fix hundred ; viz, to fix hundred 
thirty-one and three quarters : and a num- 
ber confiderably more than fix hundred 
comes already very near the Number of the 
fame Beaft that follows in the text, to wit, 
to the number 666. It is true even this 
number too will be thought a very uncouth 
one -y let us not however be ftartled at that, 

Part hi. §. xliii. 159 

but rather fince, ( i ), the Times of the 
continuance oi" the three Woes do not them- 
felves give us any handle for their more 
particular Refolution, and (2) on the other 
hand the Number of the Beaft is accom- 
panied with a command to calculate, ac- 
count or reckon, and alfo (3) every calcula- 
tion requires at leaft two numbers 5 let us 
only fee whether each of thefe two numbers, 
to wit, the forty-two months and the 666 
as the Number of the beaft, might not, un- 
der the divine guidance, afford us that in- 
difpenfable affiftance, of which no glimpfe 
appears elfewhere, to fupply the very thing 
that is wanting in the other. It is faid; 
Here is the Wifdom : let him that hath under- 
fianding count the Number &c. Now when 
a hearty lover of the Revelation of Jesus 
Christ thinks of thefe words, he will not 
indeed attempt to break into the fandtuaiy, 
through felf-confidence, but then neither 
will he fhrink back under a pretence of 
humility, but will be allured and excited 
to follow, with refpedlful defire, as far as 
at any time he finds before him an open 
door and a clear path. 

f6o In T R o D rr c T I o m. 

Sa then I make the following remarks 
with all pt)ffible plainnefs and perfpicuity. 

L A Number is afcribed to the Beail, 
and to hrs Name. 

II. Whether, and how far, the Num- 
ber of the Beafi: and the Number of his 
Name are to be confidered as the fame, or 
as different, is not yet needful to inquire. 

III. It is enough at prefent that 666 is 
the Number of the Beafl himfelf, which 
Is here propefed, and indeed injoined, not 
only to be numbj^ed or fold but to be reckoned 
or calculated, 

IV. That we may have a thorough 
comprehenfion of a Number, two terms 
are requifite, to wit, an AdjeSlhe and a 
Subjia?7five ; for example, twelve Afojiles : 
Here is twelve^ the {numerus mimerans^ or) 
number numbring, and Apojlles, the (mime- 
rits mmeratus^ or) number numbred. For a 
while we may, to exprefs the Difference be- 
tween them, call the former a cipher-mwi- 
her^ and the latter ^fubje5l-72umbery iince it 
is the name of that 'which is the fubjed of 
the number. 

Part hi. §. xliii. i6i 

V. Where we have both thefe together, 
there is no need of calculation. 

VI. But where a Calculation is required, 
as here; there is to be found out by that 
calculation either a Cipher-number yet un- 
known, fuitable and belonging to theSubjed:- 
number given or already known -, for exam- 
ple, when any one defigns a great building 
he knows beforehand that a great mimier of 
pounds will be required for the charge of it, 
but how majiy hundreds or thoufands it will 
take, he muft find out -, and this is called, 
Luk. xiv. 28, i^\y\(p^li^y) to calculate; 

VII. Or elfe, to the Cipher-number known 
a fuitable Subjedl-number which is at yet 
unknown, is to be found out. 

VIII. Here is the Cipher ^number exprefs- 
ly, 666 ; and fo that does not want to be 
found out by calculation. 

IX. CoNSEQjJENTLY, in this prophetical 
enigma the Number of the Beaft is, as to 
what relates to our calculation of it, a Sub- 

X. And fo, to the Adjedlive 666 there 
muft be found a Subftantive, that we may 

i62 Introductiokt. 

underftand whether it be 666 Provmcesy or 
Men, or Heads, or Honis, or Crowns, or T^imes^ 
or Cubits, or P/V^r^'j of Money, or what elfe. 

XL The Text itfelf demands an inquiry 
after fuch a Subftantive -, for the number is 
the number of a Man, or rather, a nwnher of 
Man or human number. 

XII. The meafure for the wall of the 
new Jerufalem, viz, 1 44, is called a meafure 
of a Man, iichich is that of an Angel, C. xxi. 
17. On the contrary, the Number of the 
Beaft viz, 666, is called fimply a 7iimber of 
a Man or human Number, that is, in com- 
mon ufe among men. Thefe two phrafes 
are intelligible enough in themfelves : and 
as they have an evident reference to one a- 
nother, and explain and give more weight 
to one another, they put into our hands the 
Key of the prophetical Numbers. Eve7y 
Expofition that pretends to do without this Kex^ 
is certainly wrong, 

XIII. Now when the Number of the 
Beaft is called the Number of a Man, it is 
meant of a Subje^-^nnmhcr, not a cipher- 
number. For 666, abftradledly confidered, is 

Part hi. §. xlih. 1*3 

neither more nor lefs than 666 : and 144 is 
ftill 144, whether a Mafi or Angel tell them. 

XIV. And fince the Subftantive, that 
iuits the Adjedive 666, mull: be found out 
by Calculation, that can be done only by 
the help of another number in the text ex- 
prefled in both its parts. No man can cal- 
<:ulate with one number only, but mufl 
have at leaft two : to be fure then we ihall 
find another. 

XV. We ought not to think of compar- 
ing any one number with a?iy other, through- 
out the book at a venture ; but two num- 
bers belonging to the fame fubjex5l mull be 
of one kind, or have fome certain relation 
to one another. Therefore here in the affair 
of the Beall, the Subftantive that is exprefled 
in that other number, and the Subftantive 
that is not exprefled along with 666, muft 
be of one and the fame kind, viz, both of 
them, as above-mentioned. Provinces^ or 
T'imes^ or whatever it may turn out. If they 
did not agree in this refpedt they would not 
be of ufe, the one to refolve the other, by 
means of calculation. 

164 Introduction. 

XVI. Suppose they fhould be 7/Wx.— 
We may on the iirft hearing look upon that 
as very fuitable : for ( i ) the word Number 
is often ufed in fpeaking of Times : in mene^ 
mene (i. e. hath 7im7jbredj thy kingdom or 
reign) it is meant of the 'Time of his reign. 
(2) From the ninth chapter onward the pe- 
riods of Time are frequently expreffed each 
of them doubly^ as we have already obferved 
§. XXVI, Num. iv. Therefore we fhall find 
it fo likewije in this notable Nujj^ber of the 

XVII. In all the defcriptlons of the Beafl: 
no other numbers occur but the te?i Horns ^ 
the fe-ven Heads, and the forty-two Months. 
If the Comparifon is made with the Horjis 
and Heads the Beafl muft have 666 Parts 
that belong in fome manner or other to his 
Body 'y if with the forty-two Months, the 
Number of the Beafl mufl yield 666 Times. 
The former does not agree with the manner 
of the exprefion. Number of the Beajl -, and 
has no probability from the nature of the 
thi?ig, fince no 666 paj-ts can be found to 
be reckoned in the Beafl: ; which we fliall 
find, C. xiii. i, to be ^ Power partly fpiritual, 

Part hi. §. xliii. 165 

partly temporal : there remains then only 
the latter viz, the forty-two Months ^ which 
alfo, as we faid near the beginning of this 
§. XLIII, ftand in need of a folution, but 
meet with it no where but here. 

XVIII. And thus we may be bold to fay. 
The forty-two Months are T'imes j therefore 
the 666 2iX^T^imes alfo. The ten Horns are 
all cotemporaiy about the latefl: time of the 
Beaft, and fo belong not to this place : but 
the feven Heads are one after the other ; 
and indeed the duration of the five firft is 
as long as that of the Power of the Be all: in 
his forty-two months and his number : but 
fince it is not faid how long each fingle 
Head lafts, we muft find out the duration 
of the Heads by tlie Times of the Beaft, 
but not the Times of the Beaft by the Heads. 
So it ftill comes to a Comparifon of the for- 
ty-two Months and the Number of the Beaft. 

XIX. These two Periods of Time do 
not follow one another, in which cafe there 
could be no comparing of them together by 
Calculation ; but run on along with one 
another, like the other above-mentioned 
pairs or couples of periods. On this oc- 

i66 Introduction. 

cafion it is to be obferved that tho' in 
thjE defcription of the Beaft the one Mark 
of time is given in the Middle and the other 
at the End, thefe two periods neverthelefs 
run on together, even as the five Months 
of the Locufts in the middle and in the 
end of the defcription of them are one and 
the fame. 

XX. The 666 then are human Times, in 
tommon ufe in life, as common Days, com- 
mon Years, &c. On the contrary the forty- 
two Months of the Beaft are not called hu- 
man or common Months, one of which 
contains about thirty common days : and we 
have already Hiewn §. xl, that they zxc pro- 
phetical Months. 

XXI. The forty-two Months and the 
Number 666 are tvfo equal periods of Times: 
elfe we could have no fure ground for that 
Calculation which is fo plainly commanded. 
This Equality will be more fully iliewn in 

§. XLVII. 

XXII. Now calculate, reckon, perform 
fome operation of arithmetick on the forty- 
iwo Months and the Number 666. By 
N'- XIX, we mull neither add nor fubftra<ft: 

Part in- §. xliii. 167 

much lefs will multiplication do. It remains 
therefore that we muft divide. Dhide then 
the greater Cipher-number 666 by the fmaller 
42 ; and fo they will give each other the 
neceffary folution above hoped for. The 
Quotient is 15 -|t; of which we will at 
prefent make ufe only of the integer or 
whole number 15. Behold now, 

42 Months are — 666, exaftly : 

1 Month or 30 Days arc 1 5 of the 666, nearly : 

2 Days are — i of the 666, nearly : 

J Day is — — •? of an unit of 666, nearly. 

XXIII. We have proved that the Num- 
ber of the Beaft 666 is common Times: and 
the common times are either Hours or Days, 
or Months, or Years. Now the forty-two 
Months of the Beaft are longer than com« 
mon months 5 and the Number 666 is 
not fliorter than the forty-two prophetical 
months. Wherefore they cannot poffibly 
be 666 common months, much lelsdays or 
hours. In the Greek Original the number 
^66 is either mafculine or, rather, neuter : 
on the contrary the words for Hour and 
Day are neither the one nor the other : the 
word for Month is indeed mafculine ; but 

i68 Introduction. 

that word is already appropriated to the 
forty-two prophetical months. So there re- 
mains only the Tear, This word in the 
Greek is both mafculine svtaulc?, and neuter, 
fjof. The 7i€uter will obtain the preference 
in §. XLV N°. XVIII and in §. liii : at pre- 
fent let it be eithe?', 

XXIV. Still then they are Years: as 
Luther declares in his very valuable, but 
ihort, and therefore little regarded, margi- 
nal notes. The five firft Kings, with their 
long duration in \htjirjl Being (fee C. xvii. 
S.) of the Beaft, take up precifely thefe 
666 years. That Ellipfis by which the 
word Year is left out, we meet with in the 
feventy Weeks of Daniel and pretty often 
on other occafions : and the reader is tacitly 
prepared for fuch an Ellipfis by the like de- 
ficiency of the words Language d.ndHorfemen, 
C. ix. II. 1 6. 

XXV. Thus, about fifteen common Years 
make one prophetical month or [about] 
thirty days : and one prophetical Day is a- 
bout half of a common year : or, to adhere 
more clofely to the words of the text j^r/y- 
two prophetical Months are 666 himan years. 

Part hi. §. xliii. 169 

Hereby not only the prophetical month and 
day which we have been enquiring about^ 
from §. XXXVI 1 1, but belides that, the 
Number of the Beaft too, is in a great mea- 
fure difcovered. He that but now begins to 
enquire after the proof of both, may read 
over again what we have hitherto difcovered 
at large 5 I know not how to help him any 
other way. 

XXVI. Tho' no man, in our times, lives 
to 666 Years, yet this number is very aptly 
called the Number of a Man or a number of 
man or humaji number as it confifts of human 
Years. For the attributes or predicates that 
belong to a fpecies or to individuals are often 
afcribed to the genus or to the colledlive 
noun. People fay in dealing or in common 
converfation, that corn, wine, cloth, wood, 
&c. cofts fo much or fo much ; but every 
body underftands it of the bufhel, the gal- 
lon, the yard, the load or other particular 
meafure. So a parcel of ants are faid Prov, 
XXX. 25, and conies i;^r. 26, to be 'Si people 
not ftrong and a feeble folk. The number 
of fome hundreds of millions is afcribed to 

170 Introduction. 

the armies, yet is to be underftood of the 
horfimen, C. ix. 16. Not only each thou- 
fand, but every fingle follower of the Lamb, 
has his name and the name of his Father 
vmtten on his forehead, C. xiv. i. In a 
liail-ftorm there are many ftones and each 
ftone has it's own weighty yet C. xvi. 21, the 
ImU itfelf is faid to be of the weight of a 
talent. Likewife in the number of the beaft 
there are 666 Years, and each year by itfelf 
is a human year : yet the Number itfelf is 
called human. The word Number is as it 
were a fubftitute for another, for a while, 
'till it be relieved or fucceeded by the word 
Year ftepping into its place. 

XXVII. Whoever makes as much ac- 
count of the Vulgate as the Council of Trent 
prefcribes, cannot get off; he muft under- 
ftand the number 666 of Tears, For that 
Tranflation from the earlieft times to the 
prefent, has not fexce?ita &c. but fexce?2ti fex- 
aginta fex in the mafculine, in conftrudlion 
with which in latin we muft needs underftand 
a fubftantive of the mafcuhne gender; and it 
will be hard to find any other than anni^ 
years. If they fay there may be an error here 

Part hi. §. xliii. 171 

in the Vulgate; let them confider that if there 
is it is nojlight one, 

XXVIII. The "Time^ of the Beaft ftand 
in contrail to the Meafures of the new J eru- 
falem ; which is thus defcribed : aitd the 
angel 7neafured the city with the reed^ 12000 
furlongs \ (the lengthy and the breadth^ and the 
height of it are equal) and he rneafuredthe wall 
thereof 144, according to the meafure of a Man^ 
thatisy of an Angela C. xxi. 16, 17. On thefe 
two paffages we fliall give the Expofition and 
the Proof of it ; and here only take notice 
in how many refpecfls they refemble one 

(i) There we find a Couple of Numbers^ 
viz. 12000 and 144: and here the like 42 
and 666. 

(2) There is an Ellipfs-, and here alfo: 
for Reeds are underftood with the 144 (See 
by all means, the Gnomon on C. xxi. 17) 
and Tears with the 666. 

(3) In both places it is notified of what 
fort the Reeds and the Years are. Thofe 

are angelick-human : thefe are merely hu- 

^ Where this whole affair of the Meafures is briefly and 
clearly explained. 

172 Introduction, 

man. Thofe were meafured by the angel 
appearing in a human form: thefe were 
reckoned according to human acceptation. 

(4) There the 12000 furlongs are not 
of the fame fort with the 144 angelick-human 
reeds, but by virtue of the antithelis (or op- 
pofition) only human or common furlongs : 
for without fuch an antithefis 144 reeds would 
bear no more proportion to 12000 furlongs 
of the fame fort, than an inch to the height 
of a fteeple. So alfo here the number 666 
confifts of human or common times, and by 
virtue of the oppofition the 42 months are 
not human or common, but prophetical 

(5) There, there is a Meafure, and a 
hikenefs: here, is a Calculation and confe- 
quently, in numbers a Comparfon, The 
12000 furlongs and the 144 reeds are entire- 
ly equals the 42 months and the number 
666 are alfo equal to one another. 

(6) Ther E the 12000 were dhidedhy the 
144: here the 666 by the 42. 

(7) Th^Re an angelick-human reedc<?;/- 
idifis mcii^ common furlongs and here a pro- 
phetical month many common years. 

Part hi. §. xliii. 173 

(8) There is a reed of a quite iinufual 
length : fo much the lefs occafion have We 
to think it ftrange that the prophetical Day 
Ihould likewife have a quite unufual length. 

(9) In both paiTages we have reafon to 
admire and rejoice for the delicate tempera- 
ture of difficulty and eafinefs in the prophe- 
tical enigma: fince in the number of the 
Beaft and the meafuring the holy City each 
couple of numbers, 42 and 666; 12000 and 
144, is made partly difficult by reafon of the 
unufual meaning of the word Mo7itb and the 
Ellipjis of the words Tear and Reed-y partly 
cafy, by means of the phrafes human and 

(10) Thus the Revelation^ C. xxi. agrees 
with Ezekiel in this, that the holy city of 
God, which is not confined within any 
number of years (Tob, xiii. 18. Ecclus,xxxvn. 
25) is architeBonically meafured-, and C. xiii. 
with Daniel in this, that the calamities are 
chronologically included in limited Times, And 
thus we flick clofe to the text; whereas other 
expofitors have laboured to explain the num- 
bers either in both clKii^ers architectonically. 

174 Introduction. 

as Fr. Potter; or chronologically in both as 

yob, Doelingius, 

The Times of the Beaft are interwoven 
with other periods of time that fall now in 
our way. We have obferved §. xxxviii. 
that the 'things and the Times, alternately 
are ever driving one another clofer to the 
point and opening or refolving one another. 
The fame fervice the T'hi?igs by the?nfelves, and 
fo alfo the I'imes by tkemfehes do to one ano- 
ther. Now as the force of all the precedent 
reafoning meets here in one point, there is 
thus difcovered at the fame time a principal 
ground of the Refolution of the Times and of 
the Prophecy itfelf 

I. The Tiines are chiefly the following ; 
The angel mentions a Non-chronos 
in his oath whereas the fouls under the 
altar were directed to wait the length 
of a Chronos. (See the Expofition of 
C. vi. II.) 

The Devil hath z JJjort time, ' 
The Woman fpends in the wilder- 
nefs (partly parallel with the 1260 

Part hi. §. xliv. 175 

days, of which hereafter) a T^ime and 
Ttimes and half 2. time &c. 

All thefe Periods begin, one after ano- 
ther, in the order in which they ftand in the 
text; they go on along together in part of 
their courfe ; and end fometimes foon after 
one another, fometimes together. 

II. The word T!ime (Kairos) has indif- 
putably a particular and determinate fignifi- 
cation, when it is faid, a T^ime and Times 
and half a time; and fo like wife a ihort 
T'ime. The cafe is the fame as to the 

Chronos^ and as to the Non-chronos^ which is 
fomewhat fliorter. For the Chronos has a 
terminus a quo or determinate Beginning, viz, 
at the anfwer given to the fouls under the 
altar; and a terminus ad quern or determinate 
End, reaching onward 'till their fellow-fer- 
vants and brethren fliould be fullfilled. And 
fince every waiting implies a time in an inde- 
finite fenfe, the word Chronos would ftand 
here to no purpofe, if it had not a certain 
determinate fignification. In like manner 
the No7i'chronos has a determinate Beginnings 
VIZ, the time of the angel's oath, and a de- 
terminate End, as it reacheth to the finifliing 

1^6 Introduction, 

of the myllery of God. Farther, the word 
Chronos is not here to be underftood of Time 
as oppofed to Eternity ; as if from the time of 
that oath the world was not to laft a natural 
hour, day, month or year longer: as the 
oath is fworn fo long before the end of the 
fecond wo, and before the trumpet of the 
feventh angel which contains under it fo 
many things and of fo long continuance. 
Again, the word Chroms is not to be under- 
ftood indefinitely and in a general fenfe^ of a 
delay of an undeterminate length; for then 
the meaning would be, that the time of the 
oath and that of the finiihing were wholly 
one and the fame, without the leaft diftance 
between them: by which means this great 
and folemn oath is reprefented as a very 
trifling one. Confequently, the word Chro- 
?ws too (as well as Kairos, Time) has here 
2i fpecial and fingiilar meanings viz. of a period 
of time of a determinate length, to which 
the Non-chrcnoSy tho* no very fhort one, does 
not reach. Nay more ; like as the oath in 
Dan. xii. 7. concerns the time and times and 
part of a time there mentioned and limited: 
fo here alfo the oath properly relates to the 

Part hi. §. xliv. 177 

circumftance 'oftme^ a Non-chr 0710s : for the 
^hmg itfelf, viz. the myjlery of God, was 
abundantly declared long before to his fer- 
vants the prophets. 

III. Now what a Chronos may be we mufl 
difcover ftep by ftep : 

(i) TuE T'imCy times aiid half-time oi the 
Woman are longer than the Number of the 
Beaft: for they begin before the riiing of the 
beafl out of the fea, and reach not only be- 
yond the number 666 but quite beyond the 
whole duration of the beaft, 'till the Dragon 
himfelf, by reafon of his being bounds can 
perfecute the woman no longer, C. xiii. 14. 

(2) TuEjljoft time which the Devil hath 
on the earth, is loiiger than the time, times 
and half a time of the wom^n : for it ends 
with them, but begins before them. 

(3) The Non-chronos is higer than that 
fame j(hort-time, and on account of it's length 
is worthy of fo folemn an oath: for it com- 
prehendeth in itfelf the third wo or fliort 
time, and before that, the time from the 
oath of the angel to the end of the fecond 
wo, and thence to the trumpet of the feventh 


178 Introduction. 

angel, nay on to the beginning of the third 
wo. The folemnly fworn finifhing of the 
myftery and words of God is firft connedled 
with the iliort time which th^ Dragon has^ 
upon the earth, in C. x. 7. xvii. 17. 

(4) The Chronos (C. vi. 11) is longer than 
the Non-chronos; as the very name imports. 
It begins before all the trumpets, and reaches 
fo far as into the times of the beaft under 
the feventh trumpet. 

Tke proper length of a Chrojios will fhew 
itfelf more exaftly hereafter: what is faid 
of it now, concerns rather the length of the 
No7i-chrcnos ; which on another account alfo 
muft be of a confiderable length, viz. becaufe 
the many Kings, beyond whom the prophe- 
fylng with which St. John is here charged 
i^xtends, run parallel with the Non-chroms. 

IV. The Non-chronos has iefore it the 
lirft wo, and the greater part of the fecond, 
toward the end of which the impenitency of 
men too preceeds the oath of the angel 3 and 
the periods of time in the xx'*" chapter wholly 
after it. And all thefe periods, following 
one another, certainly comprehend fo large 
a fpace that there is but very little of the time 

Part iir. §. xliv. 179 

from the date of the prophecy to the end of 
the world, left between them. 

V. From hence it plainly appears why, 
not only in the title of this book but alfo in 
the conclufion, it is faid, that in it were fhewn 
the things that muft come to pafs with fpeed, 
Th.^ greater part of the fpace from the dat€ 
of this prophecy to the end of the world is 
taken up by thefe exprejjly hng periods 3 and 
the fmalleft is quite filled up by thofe other 
things that in general fhall come to pafs with 
fpeed. On this occafion we may conceive 
as if the whole book were one word, and fo 
both the ipeed and the long periods were 
j(poke out in one breath ; and therefore 
Ihould rmtfet the general declaration oifpecd^ 
and the periods particularly expreifed as tak- 
ing up much time^ in oppojition to one another 
hit look upon them as two parts having a re- 
ference to one another, and belonging to one 
general declaration of time running thro' th^ 
whole book^ take and compare them; join 
them and interweave them one with anotlier. 
The times that are expr^fled evidently fpeak 
for themfelves, and am£)unt to a great deal : 
the reft paffes with fpeed : to which kind 

j8o Introduction, 

therefore belong particularly the trumpets of 
the firft, fecond, third and fourth angels, no 
time being determined for them. Thus the 
Coming of the Lord (which is the Scope of 
the whole book) and the time of it, is declared 
partly by accelerations, partly by retardati- 
ons; that i3 the true 'Term of it is, in an ele- 
gantly varied way, fixed fiear^ but not too 
near; far^ yet not too far off, viz. ;2^^rand 
not too far, by the fpeed in general, by the 
oath of the angel, as alfo through the inci^ 
dental difcovery of the long periods : far and 
not too near, by the three woes and by va- 
riety of periods of thofe and other things. 

VI. Now by all this the Non-chronos, 
has attained to a conliderable length ; where- 
fore the word Non-chronos is to be taken in 
a duly exteniive meaning, to fignify tantum 
non Chronos, that is, not indeed a fidl ChromSy 
but little fliort of it ; fmce a little time be- 
fore, in the beginning or even the midft of 
the fecond wo, (before the end of which 
the angel fwore) it was, by virtue of the 
cmtithefiSy a whole Chronos to the fulfilling 
of the myftery of God : alfo on the other 
hand tlie very name of Non-chronos and the 

PaHT III. §. XLIV. i8i 

oath of the angel, as well as the comparifon 
of the calamities and the good things that 
come after them, fliew that the former 
fliould not laft too long, nor the latter be 
too long delayed. 

VII. Wherefore we muft alfo invert 
what we advanced in N^ iii. and fay, 

(i) The Chronos is iiot much longer than 
the Non-chronos, 

(2) The Non-chronos is not much longer 
than the fliort Time. 

(3) The jldort time is not much longer 
than the time and times and half time. 

(4) The T^ime and times and half time are 
not ;nuch longer than the number of the bcaft. 

Both thefe things (that of thefe periods 
the one is always higcr than the other, and 
that always the one is not much longer than 
the other) is evident from the whole tenor 
of the text. 

VIII. Thus the Non-chronos and the 
fhorter periods connected widi it are intend- 
ed for a twofold declaration, to wit, that 
men on earth might riot expedt the good 
things either too eark or too late. 

1 82 Introduction. 

IX. That is : the Non-chronos provides 
that men, when the end of the fecond wo 
was drawing near, fhould not fkip too 
quickly over the thirds nor exped the good 
things that are to follow after it, too quick- 
ly; much lefs look upon the plaufible ap- 
pearance of the kingdom of the Beaft as the 
joyful completion of the myftery of God. 
The Non-chronos alfo provideth that men 
ihould not quite give up their hopes : for 
(i) the fecond wo endeth^c;^ after the oath 
of the angel ^ (2) the third wo comes quick- 
ly after the end of the fecond; and (3) in 
the third wo the Dragon has but zjl:ort time. 
For this very reafon, the times mentioned 
between the time and half time muft be un- 
derftood ftriftly oit^m times : and th&fjort 
fimey which is longer than thefe i and 2 
and ~ time, (i. e. 3 4- times) mufk be the 
next above it, viz. four tifiies. Thus the 
twofold declaration above-mentioned is part- 
ly hidden and in part fufficiently plain. 

X. Now we have found />r^//y nearly the 
length in proportion to the number 666, of 
thofe periods that are interwoven with it, 

Part hi. §. xliv. 183 

and alfo of the firft and fecond wo : but 
we iliall foon find them out yet more nearly. 
XL In the mean time, when we com- 
pare together thefe very periods (only in this 
length, as thus far fettled) with the fcope of 
them taken notice of in N\ viii; the middle 
reckcmng is yet more confirmed. For Firft, 
by the twenty-four hours Day there is no pro- 
portion between the 1000 years and the o~ 
ther periods, as the longeft of them would 
come only to between 3 and 4 years : and 
by the Tear-day they would extend a great 
deal too far over and beyond the 1000 years. 
Secondly, if one takes the periods longer 
than we have hitherto made them out, and 
reckons them by the Tear-day -, fuch an ex- 
pofitor would find the fpace of time from 
St. John's being in Patmos to the end of the 
world too fhort for him, the difficulty ever 
increafing, and the forty-two Months ex- 
tended far beyond the length of the Non- 
chronos and even the Chronos itfelf. If he 
takes them jhorter and reckons them by the 
common Day, things will then indeed come 
to pzHsJhortly enough, with a pure and un- 
allayed fpeed, not only thro' all the unde- 

184 Introduction. 

termined but through the determined times 
alfo 'y efpecially when one interprets fo ma- 
ny periods in the text all of them of the 
3 f years of Antichrift only. But if they 
are taken in that moderate middle length to 
which they on the one hand confine^ and on 
the other hand extend one another ; then in 
the middle of the fpeed of the other things 
thefc make a flop fo proportioned that all 
the centuries, tho' fo many, are duly filled 
up. Thus the complex of all the periods 
do the whole ftrudlure of the prophecy an 
important fervice, and fuch a one as no- 
thing elfe does it, even fuch a one as the 
aggregate or whole fett of the bones do to 
the body : that the whole machine is ena- 
bled to Hand handfomely ftreight and up- 
right, fo that when cover'd all over with 
veflels, fiefh and Ikin, yet it does not fink 
down into a lump. Again, compare 

• them with Hi/yory: hy xhQ twenty-four hours^ 
day it makes one or more empty-gaps of 
many centuries 3 and by the Tear-day there 
is a crouding of things together that is liable 
to yet greater difficulties. But in the middle 
way all the great revolutions as they tend to 

Part hi. §. xliv. 185 

one only mark, proceed on in an uninter- 
rupted order and beautiful proportion ; and 
the prophetical periods, C. vi — xiii. ferve to 
a good purpofe, namely to point at and give 
notice of the good things to come in a pro- ' 
per manner, 'till at laft the due time for 
them comes. 

This two-fold fcope of thefe periods like- 
wife particularly eftablilhes the duration of 
the three woes 5 which othcrwife one might 
have taken according to the 24 hour-day 
without running counter to our other pria- 
cipal pofitions. For the forty-two months 
of the Beaft are as long as the Number of 
the Beaft -, nay not much ihorter than the 
other periods num. vii: and of whatever 
fort the months of the Beaft are, of the 
fame fort arc the months of the locufts , 
and the hour and day and month and year 
of the four angels let loofe upon the Eu- 
phrates'', otherwife, as was obferved before, 
there would be no proportion between the 
three woes, and there would be no manag- 
ing of them even in other points already 


i86 Introduction. 

XII. The very T'itle of the book corrobo- 
rates the middle reckoning : for it is called a 
Revelation^ which implies a new grand dif- 
covery. Now the things themfelves for 
* the mofi part are contain'd before in the 
prophecies of the old teftament, as particu- 
larly the maintainers of the 24 hours-day 
fuppofe, when they interpret almoft every 
thing of the judgments upon antichriftianifm 
and the peaceful times of the church that 
follow thereupon : therefore this difcovefy 
muft have for its principal fcope the T'imes, 
by the manifeftation of which the Things 
are put into fo regular a difpofition that any 
one may know (and the nearer it draws the 
more exadtly) about what time it is. Now 
people have long enough fearch'd in vain 
for fuch a thing on the footing of the year- 
day y and by the 24 hoiirs-day they are fo 
far from being able to find it, that a main- 
tainer of that reckoning is not in a condition 
fo much as to prove that the 1000 years in 
C. XX. 2, fhall certainly begin within twelve, 
feven or two centuries from this time for- 
ward : by the middle reckoning alone there- 
fore we can fet every thing in order. 

Part hi. §, xlv. 187 


The true length of the prophetical Times 
will be yet more nearly determined, and al- 
io farther confirmed, by comparing the 
1000 years in C. xx. (which, as will ap- 
pear gradually but chiefly in §. liii, are to 
be underftood in the proper or common ac- 
ceptation) with the preceeding periods, fome 
fhorter fome longer than it. For under the 
trumpet of the feventh angel the various 
preceeding calamities are compared, as op- 
pofites, with the 1000 years in which Satan 
is bound, and with the 1000 years in which 
thofe of the firft refurredlion reign with 
Christ. And as in this comparifon the 
Things have a relation to one another, fo 
we have alfo a glimpfe of a prGportion in 
the times. 

I. At the firft glance the number of the 
•beafl and the 1000 years are to one another 
very near in the proportion of 2 to 3 . And 
this excites us to fee what may be the refult 
of a more exac!^ calculation ; by which we 
have, in the firft place this proportion. 
2 : 3 : : 666 : 999. 

i88 Introduction. 

But as this falls a whole unit, or one 
year, fhort of the looo years ; let us invert 
it : and then it comes out by divifion 

3: 2:: 1000: 666 J (4) or more 
plainly in the expanded numbers 

II. Here the quotient gives the number 
666 again, and that in ^vVO v/ays, both in 
the integer and the fradion. Nov7 alfo 
we difcover fomething further to be calcu- 
lated, befides the number 666 expreffed in 
the text, which could not be feen yet in 
§. XLiii above. 

III. A Monad or Unit of 666 is i-fy^ 
year ; in like manner as the cubit in Ezek. 
xl. 5, is a hand breadth longer than ufual. 

IV. This may be one reafon among o-- 
thers why the word Tear is not expreflly 
mentioned in the text; becaufe each monad 
of the 666 is a few hours longer than the 

folar^ or even xh^Jidereal year. 

V. Nevertheless the number 666 re- 
mains indifputably a human number in con- 
tradiftindion to the much longer prophetical 
year in C. ix. 15. For an unit of the 666 
is more than 365 but lefs than 366 full 

Part hi. §. xlv. 159 

days 5 and many of the years in ufe among 
men, i. e. the civil years of feveral nations, 
differ farther than this from the exad: folar 
year; but the fraction ~y or I amounts 
to httle more than half a year on the whole 
fum of 666. Thus they are and remain 
human years, not angelick-human like the 
144 meafuring-reeds in C. xxi. 17. 

VI. Besides the 1000 years and the 42 
months there is not in all the book a third 
number that gives us the leaft handle or 
pretence for comparing it with the number 
of the beaft, and confequently for calculat- 
ing that number : whereas each of thefe 
two, efpecially both together, oblige us to 
take the 666 for T^inies^ for human Tijnes^ in 
a word, for Tears, 

VII. At the fame time, this comparifon 
of the two numbers 1000 (that is 999 y) 
and 666 f leads us to fuch Secula or ages 
as are fomewhat longer than the common 
ones of 100 years, and therefore deferve our 
particular notice. The thoufand years di- 
vided, not into 10, but 9 equal parts, give 
us fuch Secula^ each of which confiils of 
1 1 1 f , and 9 of which, as mentioned above, 

190 Introduction. 

make up 1000 years, and 6 of them the 
Number of the Beaft. The ancient Romans 
approached very near to fuch ages, who 
celebrated their fecular games^ not every 
I GO, but every 1 1 o years ; and that in fuch 
manner that they fell the 9'^ time on the 
very 1000^*" year after the building of the 
city of Ro7ne. So likewife did the old 'Etriifci 
among whom one feculum with another 
came to between 1 1 1 and 112 years. See 
FoUtiaiu MifcelL C. 58, and Gyrald, lib, de 
Anjih & Menfib. "T. 11. Op.f. 551 feg. This, 
to be fure, as many other things befides, 
they muft have received from the eajiern 

VIII. The periods from the Chroma to 
the Number of the Beaft are all of different, 
but not greatly different, lengths (§. xliv.) 
which are very precifely determin'd where 
they are mentioned; for exanlple, the times 
of the woman, which arc fo ftudiouily fplit 
into I and 2 and f . 

Now as the numbers 666 J and 999 f 
(that is 1000) and in like manner, the i, 
the 2, and the -\ in the times of the wo- 
man, are fo proportioned to one another: 

Part hi. §. xlv. 191 

it will be well worth our v/hile to enquire 
whether the proportion of the jufl-mention- 
tdifecula or ages may not be a path to lead 
us to the determinate length of all thefe 
periods, and fuch a one as may not be to 
be found any where elfe. 

IX. From hence would arife the follow^ 
ing progreffion : 

«• mi Years are - half a Time. 

^' 222 y Years — i Time. 

*=• 333 g^ Years — i i- Time. 

•*• 444^ Years — 2 Times. 

«• 5551- Years — half a Chronos. 

*■• 666 1 Years — the Number of the Bead. 

«• 777-^- Years — . a Time and (2) Times and half a Time. 

*• 888 I Years — the ihort Time. 

»• 999 I Years — the 1000 Years. 


'• iiii -i- (that is, ^ 

1000 and 100 and > a Chronos. 
I o and I i) Years 3 

"»• 2222 I Years — an Aion or ^Evum. 

as will appear more clearly as we proceed. 

Of thefe periods, viz. from the half-time 
up to the JEvum^ the one (as is plain from 
the text) is always longer than the other in 
the order in which they are placed here : 
and the length here affigned to each of them 

tg± Introduction. 

has been nearly determined before from tlie 
text : and now we may find the exa^ length 
by means of the proportion. 

TuEfiort time which the Devil hath up- 
on the earth, and the time^ times and half a 
fi?ne in which the Woman is obliged to flee 
before him, are fet in contraid to the thoiifand 
\ears in which Satan is bound ; as the num- 
her of the beaft while he makes war -on the 
faints, is to the thoufand years in which the 
faints leign. Now as the number of the 
beaft has a manifeft proportion to a thoufand 
years : the fhort time and the time, times 
and half a time will have the like. And a 
Chronos^ the thoufand years^ the Jl:)orf time^ 
the time^ times and haf a time^ and the 7iufn-- 
her of the beaft are in proportion to one ano- 
ther as lo, 9, 8, 7, 6. Thofe who require 
yet more palpable proof will iind it hereafter 
in our comparing of the Prophecy with Hif 
toiy. In the mean time there opens to our 
fight yet this other path to the truth, which 

X. Mofes and the Pr^/Z^^^ bring in the Sep- 
tenary, or number of 7, very frequently, 
particularly in Days, from the creation on- 

Part hi. §. xlv. 19-3 

ward, and in after or latter times in Years : 
but in the Revelation^ no number from i to 
I o is lefs mentioned in exprefs terms than 7, 
in the account of the times. But as it is full of 
that number as to the things thcnifelves^ no 
doubt wc iliall find it is fo in the T'imes alfo. 
Now when an Expojition refolves the Periods 
of Time in fuch a manner as plainly lays 
open what is fo much hidden, viz. the Sep- 
tenary 7iiunber both in Days and Years which 
are exacflly meafured by the courfe of the 
heavens, eftabliflied by the great Creator : 
this may juftly be look't upon as a good to- 
ken of it's being a right one. If the Ballance 
of accounts between an Englifi and a Floren- 
tine Merchant amounts to 7 Pounds Sterling, 
the Italians Expreflion of that fum viz. 32 
Piafters and 2 Lires, has no appearance of 
a 7 in it, but in effect contains a 7, namely 
of Englijh Pounds. Juft fo in the Revela- 
tion the Number 7 is not expreflly mention'd 
in the account of the ^iines: but as Days 
and Tears are evidently meafured out to us, 
one after another, by the courfe of the hea- 
vensi fo they alfo plainly appear to us in the 
A a 

194 Introduction. 

feptenary form by means of the true rejolntion 
of the prophetical Eriigma in which they 
were hidden. 

XL In the juft mentioned progreffion the 
hidden S>eptenary comes out plainly in Tears^ 
of the number marked ^ : and at "" and ^ fuch 
Weeks of Years could eafily be iliewn : but 
the Days are of more confequence in this 

XII. Resolve, for Inftance, a Kairos or 
Time, that is 2 22 1- Years, into Days, 
They make (according to the common way 
of reckoning 365 Days, 5 Hours, 49 Mi- 
nutes to a Year," without regarding the Se- 
conds) 1 1595 Weeks all but 44 |- minutes. 
Thefe 44 -f minutes need not difturb any 
body, as they don't amount to a whole Day 
in upwards of 7000 Years, and fo make no 
alteration, through the whole progreffion, 
in the number of the Duys into which the pe- 
riods are refolved. 

" But reckoning alfo the odd 1 2 feconds (which really be- 
long to the year, as appears from the following N°' XIV. and 
XV.) there will be no deficiency; the 222 |- years multiplied 
by 1 2 amounting to 2666 -| feconds, that is, 44 minutes and 
f precifely. Compare with N^- XIV. and XV. the Author's 
OrdoTcmporum, page 322 and 438. 

Part hi. §. xlv. 195 

XIII. Thus we have a Septenary of Days 
in the Years marked ^ ^* ^ ''» ^> and fo on, 
with fufficient exadtnefs. 

XIV. But as the opinions of the moft ac- 
curate Aflronomers concerning the true 
length of the Year are different as to the Se- 
conds : it is worth our confideration whether 
in the number of the Beaft, for Example, 
which by the common reckoning comes to 
34785 Weeks, wanting 2 Hours 13 f Mi- 
nutes, and fo contains indifputably a Septe- 
nary of Days, thefe fame 2 Hours 13 ^ Mi- 
nutes ought not to be added to them, for the 
fake of the Septenary \ and fo proportionally 
in the whole Progreffion. 

XV. At this rate the true Length of a 
Year is 365 Days 5 Hours 49 Minutes and 
12 Seconds, or to exprefs it more briefly 
365 -^Vs- Days: and fo out of 400 'Julian 
Years juft three Days muft be deducted (to 
make them equal to the fam.e number of fo- 
lar Years) as the Gregorian or new Style di- 
rects. For, by reafon of the fraction -^VV, 
400 folar Years muft pafs before the odd 
Hours, Minutes and Seconds, come out in- 

1 9"6 In»T R O D U C T I O N. 

to whole Days: and at the fame Time they 
come to whole Weeks, There are in 1 3 3 y 
Jiilia72 years 48700 Days, but in as many 
Iblar years only 48699, and confequently 
6957 Weeks. Hence this progreffion, 133 f , 
266 J, 400, 533 f, 666 T, 800, &c. is to 
be refolved exadlly into precife Weeks, and 
contains in it a ?^oimd and convenient Cycle ^ 
ivorfky of our attentive confideration. 

This length of the Year is a Medium be- 
tween the Opinions drawn from the moft 
accurate Obfervations of antient and modern 
Aftronomers in the eaft and wxft; nor does 
it any way difagree with the exad:ej[l obfer- 
vations that have been made by excellent 
mathematicians : and thus, "what human ac- 
curacy has not hitherto been able to fettle^ is de- 
termined out ofthefcriptures. 

If Mathematicians religioufly difpofed, 
would, oiit of a regard for the prophetical 
Word, flirther examine this length of the 
year and eftablifh it, it might hereafter give 
a handle for determining the true, but yet 
more hidden length of the natural or fyao- 
dical Month, ;^nd for other fuch like difco- 

Part hi. §. xlv. 197 

veries : for in this cafe too we may fay. 
Here is the wifdo?n, 

XVI. Thus in our progreflion "' '' ^ ^» ^ 
yield exadly half-weeks, and ^ '» ^^ ^ ^> "'^ 
exadt weeks : and this goes on, taking the 
now-mentioned length of the year, in iiifini- 
tum^ without the defe6l or excefs of one 
hour, minute, fecond, &c. 

XVIL The antient philofophers have 
given various Appellations to the digit num- 
bers from I to 10 : that of the number y^iw/ 
is (v.xi^o(;^ Kairos, Time. See Franc ,P atricij 
Difaifs, Peripat f, i^og. 

The reafons they had for giving thefe 
Names we fliall not enquire after : but here 
as a Time or Kairos confifts of precife weeks, 
and is the root of all periods confifting of 
pure weeks, it is a very lingular Coincidence. 

XVIII. Many underftand a Kairos to be 
the fame as z prophetical Tear, And indeed 
they are not '-oery widely different: for the 
prophetical year is 190 4- r common years, 
and the Kairos or Time 222 -f fuch years."^ 

** They are in proportion to one another as 6 to 7, viz. 

3 600^0 «-f« +2 coo 

.198 Introduction, 

But the prophetical year is in this book ex- 
preffed by it's own proper word (ewciulo,-) 
Eniautos: and Kairos never fignifies a year. 
The prophetical year is too fhort in this cafe; 
for I and 2 and f Times is longer, but i 
and 2 and f prophetical years are of the 
fame length as 42 months or the number of 
the Beaft. Juft ioCh7^o?ios in the modernGreek 
language fometimes fignifies a year: butin/foi 
Prophecy Chrcnos fignifies a great deal more 
than a prophetical year : even as much as 
fever al Kairoi or Times. Both thefe words 
have a general fignification and fo may mean 
a Year or any other fpace of time, like' the 
Chaldaic word (t*'>') Odm^ Dan, vii. 25: 
but in the Revelation the particular meaning 
is determined only by comparing of texts ^ 
and by that method a Chronos appears to be 
equal to free Kairoi, 

XIX. Some may think with themfelves 
what reafon there can be why 222 f fiiould 
be the frjl number in the progrefiion that is 
regarded as a "whole Kairos, and the proceed- 
ing one 1 1 1 ^ only as half a Kairos : whereas 
in common ufage 100 years, the firft fi:ep, 
is a whole Jeci/lum or age : and 777 |- years 

Part hi. §. xlv. igg 

(they may think) might as well have been, 
called 2 and 4 and i times of 1 1 1 -^ years, 
each, as i and 2 and f times of 222 y years 
apiece. Now here we have the proper 
Reafon: for, as many whole weeks as there 
are in a Katros, fo many half weeks there 
are in a halfKairos, which when divided by 
7 has always a remainder of 3 4- odd Days. 
So, the 777 I- being reckoned but 3 f not 
jKairots the 888 y years are very fitly called 
a (hort time, or rather a ""few tijnes^ as they 
do not exceed 7, but amount only to 4 

XX. The progrefiion carried farther on 
gives the true age of the Worlds with it's hif- 
torical and prophetical periods, in fuch a con- 
catenation as wonderfully confirms the truth 
of the whole holy Scripture of the old and 
new teftament, particularly the Apocalypfe, 
and lays open the admirably beautiful divine 
oeconomy recorded in them. This is what 
is intended in that important expreflion, 

^ The principal and proper figniiication of the original word 
•Xiyo? is few in number. It is indeed ufed alfo for little in 
bulk or dimenfions, 5fC. but then it is (as in Lexic. Bafileenfe) 

(iKiyai; prO fCix^o;, Ut fit 7rQaolr,<; uvli TrrjXtXoT/jTO-:, 

200 Introduction. 

Here is the Wisdom. This wifdom does 
not confift merely in knowing the number 
of the wretched beaft (which is indeed need- 
ful to be known for a few years, but after the 
deftruffion of the beaft will be forgotten as 
an old thing) but in our apprehending the 
comparifon of the prophetical numbers as the 
true Key in our Meditations on the divine ad- 
miniftration through all ages of the world. 
The periods of time prediBed in the Revela- 
tion are always fo framed that they muft be 
added to thofe periods that were/^ from the 
Creation to the date of this Prophecy. Either 
fett of times, thofe before and thofe after St. 
John's being in Patmos, taken feparately is 
an uncompleat thing : but they refer to one 
another and ought to be brought into one 
fum. This is the main defign of fo numerous 
difcoveries of times in the Revelation : and 
and this being well weighed will guard thofe, 
who in this Book coniider the times as well 
as other things, from all imputation of vain 
curiofity, will affure them of the importance 
of fuch a difquifition; and fupport their hopes 
of attaining to the truth. But the proper 

Part iti. §. xlv, xlvi. ^dj 
place to treat of this is in the ^ Ordo Temporum; 
where a fober anfwer will be given to thofe 
who cavil and tell us that, to be fure, we 
fliall come at laft not to be fatisfied without 
knowing that Day and Hour, Matt. xxiv. 36. 
On the other hand, thus much is already 
plain from what we have now learned out 
of the Revelation, that we are able to refolve 
the prophetical Times now aftually in courfe, 
particularly thofe of the Beaft, more eafily 
than fome v/ould think who are otherwife 
ingenious perfons; even fuppofing there was 
no finding out the exa*5l number of the pail 
years of the world, to fay nothing of thofe 
that are yet to come. 


Above, after dividing 666 by 42 the 
Quotient being 15 44 h we let alone the 
FraBion-, in the mean time We have got 
another FraBion belonging to the number 
666, viz. 114 V- Now if this latter were 
alfo refolved, the better would it and the 
former anfwer ojie to another^ whereby the 

y Ordo Temporum was publiflied the next Year after thi?, 
viz. A° T741, 

202 Introduction. 

length of the 42 Months and fome other 

prophetical periods might be more exadly 



In every Enquiry, and particularly in the 

prophetical Chronology^ one may oblerve one 

defedt after another both in himfelf and 

others, and always come nearer the mark, 

but alfo ftill fall a little fhort of it, and yet 

know that he is come nearer it. This was 

my own cafe for fome time with regard to 

the periods which pafs before the number of 

the Beaft; but now with regard to the refo- 

lution of thefe we find a more convenient 

handle, fmce the perfedl equality of the 42 

Months of the Beaft and the number of the 

Beaft; taken notice before in §. xliii. N°. 

XXI. is farther confirmed by the following- 


I. Other Periods are entirely equal. In 
the firft wo, the 5 months arc twice men- 
tioned in the fame terms 3 whereby the rea- 
der is prepared for the like equality of the 
periods afterwards expreffed in two different 
manners. In the fecond wo, the fpace of 
the hour and the day, and the month, and 

Part hi. §. xlvii. 20^ 

the year was, as it were, adequately filled 
lip by the 400 millions of Horfemen. The 
cafe is the fame in C. x. of the Non-chronos 
and the many Kings. In the xx'^ Chap- 
ter, the 1000 years are feveral times repeat- 
ed ; as the five months in the firft wo. And 
in C. xxi. the numbers 12000 and 144 will 
be found to be of the fame magnitude. 

IL The 42 Months cannot be longer than 
the number of the Beaft,. for his power, li- 
mited to the 42 Months, cannot fubfift with- 
out his Being or Exiftcnce, which is includ- 
ed in his number. There is, befides, in the 
foregoing Progrefiion, no fuitable number 
between JTJ ^^ and 666 ^ to anfwer to the 
42 Months. Again the number of theBeaft 
cannot be longer than the 42 Months. For 
the 42 Months, ftand in the beginning of 
the defcription of the Beaft, before the 
Number 666 : fo the Number cannot be- 
gin before them. Neither can the fame 
Number reach beyond the 42 Months, fince 
the moft violent exercife of his Power, 
wiiich is limited to 42 Months, is toward 
the end of his number, C. xiii. 17. The 
very Name of Beast denotes a Power : 

204 Introduction. 

for which reafon it is faid of him afterward, 
when his number is run out, his kingdom 
darkned and his power broken. The Beast 
u not. 

Both periods then are of equal length: 
and as the power of the Locufts and the 
Power of the Horfes lafted as long as the 
Locufts themfelves in the firft wo, and the 
Horfes themfelves in the fecond wo^ fo the 
Power of the Beaft in the third wo, lafts 
as long as the Beaft himfelf in hiis number. 

III. Now as no reafon can be offered 
why we fhould rejedl this equality of thefe 
two periods ; 'tis therefore our fureft way to 
adhere to it, as the following proportion 
and its confequences will farther confirm us : 

42 : 6663 : : i : I5lf. 
The thing can never be fettled any other 
way ; but by this it can, with certainty, and 
beyond our hopes ; for tho' the two Frac-- 
iions might to many people appear ftrange 
enough : yet when, in the real prophetical 
periods of time, they produce, by this very 
proportion, round and proportionable whole 
mimbersy they will without doubt give fatis- 

Part III. §. xlvii, xlviii. 205 

fadion to all, efpecially thofe who are ikil- 
ful in the knowledge of Numbers. 

IV. By virtue of the equality of thefe 
two periods, in a progrefTion of months by 
/evens, there are 

in 7 prophetical Months 1 1 1 | common Years. 
14 2 fevens, 222 -I 



333 H 



444 f 



555 i 



666 1 1 



777 -^ 



888 1- 



1000 (999 .;o 



I n I i and fo oh. 

In this progreflion, the exprefs Septena- 
ries of the prophetical Months, and the half 
and whole weeks of Days, into which the 
common Years are refolved in the manner 
we have mentioned above, agreeably co- 


Thus 42 prophetical Months are precifely 
666 V common years : and now by means 
of thefe Months we can come at the Year 
and Day and Hour in the fecond wo ; as 
alfo the 1260 Z)^v5 of the Woman which 
berin between the fecond and third wo ; 

2o6 Introduction. 

the determination whereof is very important, 
fmce there areyi inany Days. 

Now it may be alked, I. Whether the 
prophetical Month is to be divided into pro- 
phetical Days according to the proportion of 
30 days to a common month, which would 
make a year of 360 days ? or whether that 
divifion muft not be made in proportion to a 
fhorter or longer common month, confifting 
of fome hours lefs or more than 30 days; in 
both which cafes, efpecially the latter, the 
year retains it's natural length of full 365 
days ? The anfwer is : the months of 30 
days had been long before difufed; and fhort- 
er months had indeed been in common ufe, 
efpecially among the Jews: but in Afia in 
St. Johri^ time, longer months were in ufe, 
and had been for a long time, as Archbifliop 
Ufher proves at large in his Israel ^ de Maced. 
£5? Jfianorum Anno Solari, And fmce in C. 
xi. 2, (as will appear in the Expofition) we 
m.eet with this longer fort of months and no 
other (and fo, it is all one here whether they 
be common or prophetical months); we 
adhere to a conformity with them, A montli 
of 30 days, or even a fliorter, would not in- 

Part hi. §. xlviii. 207 

deed lead us into any wide miflakes : but 
after much labour things will not come out 
quite right, as experience has taught me; 
^nd ^2 continued months, of 30 days each, 
without intercalation of the days requifite 
for 3 T years, are no where to be met with. 
Even the Chaldeans long before DaniePs 
time reckoned, not 360 but 365 days to a 
year. So a longer month, which is an ali- 
quot part oi 2i year, C. ix. 15. and indeed a 
twelfth part (compare C. xxii. 2) and fo 
confifts oi not lefs, nay more than 30 days, 
is quite commodious and eafy. Now 42 
fuch months come to 3 f years; yet it is 
proper that that fpace of time fhould be 
called 42 months, and not 3 f years ; for 
the word Tear was to be underftood foon af- 
ter in the number of the Beaft ; fo it would 
not have been convenient to be ufed here 
too; and befides, this jiuinber is more eafily 
divided by 42, the number of the months. 
Hereby alfo the third wo gains a more ma- 
nifeft refemblance to the two preceeding 
ones, of which the fecond, befides it's hour 
and day and year, has it's month too, and 
the firft has months only, and thefe not 

2o8 Introduction. 

amounting all together to half a year. And 
the 42 months are capable of being varioufly 
divided (not only from the nature of the 
Number, but alfo in \:omparifon with the 
number 666) into feveral periods, which co- 
incide with hiftorical fadls. 

It may be alked, II. Whether the 1260 
days of the Woman are natural or propheti- 
cal days? I anfwer. They are prophetical^ 
For ( I ) a confiderable part of them paffes 
before the times of the Beaft, before the 
End of which the times are all figuratively 
expreffed. (2) 1260 common days would 
bear no proportion to the 3 f times in which, 
it is faid foon after, the Woman was to be 
maintained in the wildernefs, and which are 
of a confiderable lengthy (3) the things 
which come to pafs in thefe 1260 days re- 
quire a longer time. However, this pe-. 
riod of 1260 days is fhorter than the 3 f 
times : for the 3 4- tin^^s are longer than the 
number of the Beaft, and confequently 
lono-er than the 42 jnondis of the Beaft, and 
thefe amount to full J 278 prophetical days. 
The 3 t times come to more, and the 1260 
days to kfs than 666 ; years. The lo7igeJ{ 

Part hi. §. xlviii, xlix. 209 
of thefe periods is expreffed in Kai7^oi or 
Times, the middle one in Months and the 
Jljortejl in Days, 

Bleffed be the name ^ God for ever and 
ever : for wifdo?n and might are his. And 
He changeth the times and the feafons. He 
removeth kijigs^ and fetteth up kingSy He giv- 
eth the wife their loifdom^ and to men of under- 
Jlanding their knowledge^ He revealeth ths 
thijigs that are deep and fecret^ He knoweth 
what lieth in Darknefs -, and Light dwelleth 
with Him, Dan. ii. 20 — 22. 


It is univerfallyunderftood that 1 2 months 
make a year. Now a year confills of 
"" 365 -//t- days. A day, in contradiftinc- 
tion to night, contains 12 hours, particularly 
at the Equinoxes: but where it is put in 
contradiftindlion to the year, to the month, 
and to the hour itfelf, C. ix. 1 5, it is divided 
into 24 hours. And in this proportion 
comes out the proper length of the fo often 
mentioned prophetical periods, without far- 
ther trouble. 


^ Or, in Decimals, 365. 2425 days. 

2IO Introduction. 

Forty-two months in the common or 
prophetical fenfe are equally 3 - years, or 
1278 ^i-l days : and the 42 months in the 
third wo are 666 -;- common years, or 
243495 common days; and confequently 

prophetical natural days 

the 1260 days of the woman, are 240000 

precifely, or 657 
years and 46 days, 
the hour, day, month, 
and year in the 2"*^ 

wo, - - are "J^^i^^ [/. e, 10795 

weeks] and not full 
22 hours; or 207 
years abating 40 
the 5 months in the 

i'' wo, - - are 28987 i [/. e. 4141 

weeks and 12 hours] 

or 79 f years full. 


All thefe periods are compofed of feveral 

months, of feveral days, of an hour and a 

day and a month and a year ; yet in the 

now mentioned natural days into which they 

Part hi. §. l, lt, lit. 211 

are refolved there appears plainly either a 
round OY \hc feptcjtary number; for which 
reafon we have been more exad: in reckon- 
ing thefe Days than would otherwife have 
been ncceffary. In the firft and fecond w^o 
there are feme odd hours over the weeks. 
The 1260 days of the Woman are 180 
prophetical weeks y and the number of the 
natural days is vifibly a round one. 


By means of this refolution of times, 
that which we touch'd upon out of hiftory 
in §. XXXII. is more exadly limited and 
determined : but the producing hiftorical 
particulars belongs to the Exposition of the 
text; and thereby will this our Resolution 
OF Times, (like a fkeleton covered with 
•fleih and Ikin) acquire the proper form of 
an animated body. 


Thus have we determined the periods 
which we find in the text, without ever 
once concerning ourfelves w^hat might be 
the proper length of one finglc prophetical 
day, or month, or hour, or year itfelf. 
And indeed fuch an enquiry is no way ne- 

212 Introduction. 

ceflary for our purpofe; as no one of thefe 

fingle times ftand alone in the text. 

In §. xLiii. we have thus far difcovered 
the prophetical Month and Day^ that the 
former i^hetwee?! 15 and 16 common years, 
and the latter about half a common year. 
Before I had obferved that important pro- 
portion of the number 666 to the 1000 years, 
the length of that hajf-year which anfwers 
to a prophetical day could not be precifely 
determined. Hence it was that the ^ Pl an? 
p. 26, — 45, has adjulled matters no other- 
wife than upon the footing of a half of a 
common year; but yet even in that way (by 
virtue of what is mentioned in the Plan it- 
felf§. XXII, and now in this Introduction 
§. xxxviii — XLii) no very wide miftake 
could be made. Now therefore it is to be 
hoped that this yet nearer determination of 
the prophetical day and of what depends 
upon it will be yet more welcome : efpecially 
as it is now fully fettled, and here it fhall 
reft. A Half-year, Semcjlre^ or ^ Six^ 

* See Preface §. iv. 

*» A Six-month will not feem a very ftrange Expreflion to 
any one that refiefts on our common ufage of calling a Year a 
fivehe-mcnth, and faying a couple of Twelve-months, ^c. 

Part hi. §. lii. 213 

month, ^x?i6i\y or nearly, is, in fome mesi- 
fure, an entire or whole, and indeed no jn- 
confiderable period of time; not indeed in 
every language, but however in that of A- 
ftronomy, the civil Law, and even in com- 
mon Life, ' and alfo among the Hebrews 
whofe new year began in the autumn, but 
their firil month was in the fpring, &c. 
Theodorit in. his Commentary on Dan. iv. 
13, interprets the feven Times of fo many 
Winters or Summers, that is fcy^n Semejiria 
or feven Six-months ; and refers to other in- 
terpreters. Thomas Parker in Comment, 
Dan. expounds the 2300 days (or evening- 
mornings), C. viii. 14, offo many half] or 
1 1 50 whole years. In a word feveral na- 
tions in Afia, Europe and Afiica, near to 
and in the midft of whom Fatnm lies, an- 
tiently reckoned every Six-?no72th a Tear, 
Thefe things however are adduced here, 
only to fhew that it is no fuch abfurd thing 
or remote from the common notions of men 
to reckon half a year, 7iearly\ to be the pro- 
phetical day: which therefore may ftill very 
aptly be called a Sejneftre or S.ix-?no?ith, tho* 
it i§ not precifely fix months ; for the num- 

214 Introduction. 

ber of the days in the two fix-month years 
of the Hebrews, and even thofe of the hea- 
vens from one equinox to the other, are not 
equal, it is fenough that the prophetical day, 
is not a common day^ nor a whole year^ nay 
neither 5 nor 7 but 6 months. Whofoever 
can think of a more commodious name, is 
at liberty to ufe it. 

However, now at laft, after the refolving 
of the entire periods is is very eafy to find the 
Jingle times : but whatever appearance they 
mav make as to round or odd, &c. numbers, 
we need not to take offence or make that 
any objedlion 5 fince, as was before obferved, 
no one of them ftands alone in the text. 
prophetical: common Times. 

I Hour - is 7 I? days. 

I Day - is t year and near 8 days 5 or 
190 v° days. 

1 Month- is 15 I f years; or 5797 ^ days, 

I Year - is 190 ff years; or 69570 
days precifely. 

Here there appears no feptenary number 
in the common days in a prophetical hour, 
day, month, or year ; but rather fradlions. 
But then it is fo maich the more worthy of 

Part hi. §. lii. 215 

our notice that in the progreffion as foon as 
the prophetical times arife to the half or the 
whole of the Septenaries, the common times 
(both thefe we meet with in the text, and 
in higher fteps of the progreffion) coincide 
with them in round numbers. 



Hours, Days, 
Years - 

Months or ; i 


C Hours, Days, Monthj 
\ Years. 


I O" 

2 r 



z 2. 

2 z 



A -1 





3 i or half 7. 










and fo on. 

Particularly the fradional number 
666 Y falls once more in our way; and 
therefore we will here bring together all the 
places in which it has hitherto occurred to us. 

A HALF of a prophetical week, whether 
3 i years, months, days, &c. makes always 
666 *- common years, months, days, &c; 
by this §. Lii. 

2i6 Introduction.- 

TriREE Kairoiy or 6half-kairoi, or 42 pro-- 
phetical months, make alfo 3 f prophetical 
years or 666 \ common years ; §. xlvii. 

Five cycles of 133 '^ which contain 
each a precife number of natural days, make 
alfo 666 * common years: §. xlv. N°* xv. • 

Below, on C. xxi. 17, we fhall fee that 
8 Calami or angelic -human reeds make 
666 3 common furlongs. So, there the 
number of the Beaft happens to fall in with 
the meafure of the new Jerufalem ^ tho' 
by very different fleps of the progreffions. 
On this occaiion one may alfo confider that 
fraBion which is mentioned in the laft note 
on C. xiii. 18. 


This middle isoay of reckoning of time 
feveral people cry, is very ftrange indeed ; 
and the decifions founded upon it are too 
variegated, interwoven and intangled in one 
another. This is indeed only mitradiBing 
not objeBing, He that has nothing but this 
to alledge denies the conclufion, but does 
jiot argue againfl: it. Many things that look 
plaufible to us are not, for that reafon, true; 
and many things are really true that yet are 

Part in. §. lii. 2ijf 

not (o plaufible. Thus we often find it in 
natural things j how much more may we 
exped: it in thofe things that depend wholly 
on divine Revelation and Teftimony! There 
we fhould hearken, not to our own under- 
ftanding but to the word of God. Let 
them fliew wherein the proofs are deficient 
on which this fo parodoxical refolution of 
the times is eftablifhed. We will here fum- 
marily repeat the principal points for that 

In the three woes a common day is much 
toojhort for a prophetical day^ and a whole 
year much too long. But what may be the 
proper length, between thefe two extremes, 
of a prophetical day, and that particularly 
with regard to the 42 months of the Beaft, 
cannot poffibly be difcovered any other way 
than by that calculation, enjoined us on oc- 
cafion of the number of the Beaft; and again 
this calculation muft indifpenfably be per- 
form'd by taking to us the aiTiftance of the 
42 months of the fame Beaft. We follow 
the direftion in the text, we calculate, we 
find, without the leaft wrefting or ftrainin^, 

D d 

2i8 Introduction. 

the prophetical times proceeding on regularly 
in the middle-Way between the afore-men- 
tioned extremes ; and as the number of the 
Beaft comes out entirely equal to the 42 
months of the fame Beaft, fo it is in propor- 
tion to the following 1000 years as 2 to 3. 
Befides all this, there prefent themfelves 
to our view the moft beautiful proportions 
both as to the feptenary number and in other 
refpecfls. Laftly, in the completion of the 
prophecy the hiftorical fadls agree with our. 
fcheme fatisfadtorily. This is the whole 
of the matter: the will or wit of man makes 
it neither more or lefs. If any man looks, 
miftruftfully on this fame elegancy of pro- 
portions, and on the other hand, can fee 
nothing of a demonftration ; let him think 
again whether the fault may not lie in his 
own eyes. No other calculation can be fo 
natural and unconftrained ; only we are not 
yet enough accuftomed to this middle way > 
tho' feveral both antient and modern expofi- 
tors have fearched after fuch a way, fome in 
refpeft of this, fome of that point 3 for the 
natural times are to the prophetical of the 
fame denomination ' ^ 

Part hi. §. lii. 219 

as I to I to thofe that take all the words 
fignifying times in the common 
as I to 365 i- to the maintainers of the year- 

They are alfo reckoned 

as I to 7 by Joh. Woltherus in his 
Golden Ark, p. 124, 125; 
where he takes 1260 days of 
the Witneffes for fo many 
weeks ^ &c. 

as I to 12 in the treatife called '^ Glaiihe 
und Gedult^ p. 156 s where 
the 5 and the 42 months of 
the Locufts and of the Beaft 
are propofed as fo many j^^zrj, 

as I to 30 by Lud. ab Alcafar who is 
inclined to expound the 3 f 
days of the Witneffes by fo 
many nionths, 

as I to 334 with regard to the time of our 
Saviour'sconverfation on earth, 
by Joh. Dcclingius de Antichr, 
prof, C. II. 

as I to 50 by Chunmannus Flinfpachius. 

f i. e. Faith and Patience. 

220 Introduction. 

as I to 84 by John Fox, who holds I 

month for fe^n years, and fo 

42 months for 294 years, 
as I to 100 ty Juftin Martyr, taking the 

3 i times for 3 50 years, &c. 
as I to 120 by L. F. Gans, the noble Lord 

* * * 

as I to 235 by John Hufs, Paul Afphe, 

and again by Dcelingius; who 

take a month to be a cycle of 

19 years. 

Our Expofition comes in the middle 

(viz. at the place mark'd with aftericks) of 

thefe opinions, each of them the refult of a 

fearch after a middle way^, and that in fuch 

* From thefe diiTerent Opinions it appears that thinking 
nien. in all ages have feen the nccejjity of finding out a midMe 
length of a prophetical day between a common day and a year ; 
but have only gucjfed at it from an imagined equality betu^een 
it and fome period of common t'nne, as a week, a month, &c. 
prfome other remarkable period, as that of our Saviour's life- 
time. Whence we may learn the value of our Author's dif- 
covery, whoh^^ fettled xhQ proper length of it on fure grounds 
found in the text itfelf, fo that hiftory coincides furprifmgly 
with his Expofition, of which the knowledge of //^^ true length 
9/ the prophetical periods is a main pillar and fupport 

Part hi. §. lii. 221 

a manner that it carries on all the propheti- 
cal periods in one conne(fted demonftration. 
Here the proportion of the hour, the day, 
the month, and the year ought in reafon to 
make every thing eafy and fmooth to us. 
The Romans divided their As into 1 2 parts j 
and according to that proportion ufed the 
denominations of Semijfes^ Dodrantes^ &c. 
in their taxes^ in their iitheritanceSy Sec, In 
Hebrew, the analogy or proportion makes 
iovcit Accents be called Emperors, fome Kings, 
Dukes, &c. In the great Image, Dan, ii. 
all the parts from the head to the toes on the 
feet, come out by virtue of the proportion. 
And fo it is alfo as to the hours of the day 
and the watches of the night in the para- 
bles in Matt, xx. i, &c. Mark xiii. 35. 
Neither is it neceflary that the prophetical 
day ihould, according to the courfe of the 
heavens, yield on divifion exadlly a round 
period of 24 natural hours, or by multipli- 
cation, 365 days full; vA\tn fun-inonths and 
hours, without regard to the courfe of the 
heavens, are fo commonly ufed and under- 
ftood. Therefore all times that are in pro^ 

222 Introduction. 

portion to one another as i to tV? 3°) 3^5 * 
&c. may be called a day, an hour, a month, 
and a year; let the prophetical day (which 
is the monad, unit or root) be a common 
year, or a quarter, or any thing whatfoever. 
But how commodious the day of nearly half 
a year is, is fhewn above -, and why fhould 
not this be allowed, when the word Calainus 
or Reedy C. xxi. 15. is ufed in fo uncomm.on 
a iignification? but let him who ftill does 
not know what to make of fuch a prophetical 
day, either anfwer the arguments for it in 
§. XXXVIII, or §. XL; or elfe let him content 
himfelf with making the moft profitable ufe 
he can of the other parts of our meditations. 
But befides, let this be ever fo varioufly in- 
terwoven or ravel'd a computation; yet it 
/imply follows the text, which is itfelf fo va- 
rioufly interwoven. And how comes there 

« /. e. In round numbers or in the common way of reckon- 
ing : which is fufficient to illuftrate, by an example, what is 
here faid oi proportion : for in calculating the prophetical times 
and reducing them to common times the author reckons to a 
month the precifc 1 2*** part of a year, viz. 30 days and almoft 
\y his day is the 365 -^-^s part of a year, which is the fame 
as a natural day ; and his hour is the 24^'' part of this natural 
and common day. 

Part hi. §. lii. 223 

to be fomething fo multifarious and fo fine- 
fpun in aftronomical calculations of the revo- 
lutions of the planets ? why does a day confift 
of T-4V-5-T 7 of a year ? and why muft tlie 
year come round 400 times before it and the 
day end at the fame time ? would not we^ if 
fuch a work was left to our diredlion, order 
it otherwife ? neverthelefs the hand of the 
great Creator has made it thus. How is it 
that the defcription of the tabernacle, and 
of the Temple of Solomon, and of the divine 
fervice in them, is fo furprifingly blended 
together? We are not to lead^ but to 
follow. After all, there appears more 

difficulty at the firft view than is afterwards 
found in comprehending the whole of the 
matter. If any one cannot calculate and fo 
comply with the direction in the text, he 
may be quiet and let it alone : otherwife he 
may violate the truth by a rafh decifion. 
Without arithmetic one cannot conceive thefe 
admirable proportio7is^ which are like thofe 
of the fweeteft mufic. But arithmetic is not 
all: and as Ikill in that and fpiritual difcern- 
ment are not often found together; the truth, 
as to this part of it, is fo much the longer 

224 Introduction. 

in finding admifiion. It is not however nc- 
cefiary that all that would reap benefit from 
the Revelation of Jesus Christ, fliouldbe 
comoleat mathematicians, or but arithmeti- 
cians. It is with thefe wholefome enquiries 
as with the ecclefiaftical computations and 
the kalendar; of which every man may 
make feveral profitable ufes, without abufe 
or fuperftition s yet every man need not on 
that account, be fkilful in making them, 
or give himfelf any trouble about it ; for 
when there are but a few men in the world 
at any one time to take care of it, the bufi- 
nefs will be fufficiently well done. A com- 
pafs is what a (hip cannot be without : yet 
the pafl^engers may come fafely over the feas 
without ibeir looking on it. In all things 
there are diifferent gifts, offices and abilities ^ 
yet they turn to the benefit of the public, if 
they are not render 'd ineitedual by a fpirit of 

We have taken the looo years for com- 
mon years, and yet reckon the 42 months, 
for example, of the Beaft for prophetical 
months. Should not rather, fome will fay. 

Part hi. §. liii. 525 

thofe periods be taken either all in a prophe- 
tical fenfe or all in the common meanino-. 

This ObjeBion is plaufible ; and thofe 
who ftand up for the year-day, and all that 
do not take to their affiftance the number of 
the Beaft as a period of time, will find it 
hard to evade the force of it. Hence fome 
of them have had a thought come into their 
mind, whether the 1 000 years too might not 
be refolved into days, and every fuch day to 
be taken for a year ? Which fancy is very, 
juftly rejeded; and would ffill deferve fo to 
be, if we were to take each of thofe days in 
the middle way. For the 1000 years are 
over before the end of the world, nay before. 
Gog and Magog: and certainly at the paffioa 
of Chrift the world was not in the beginning, 
but plainly paft the middle of it's age^ fofar 
is it from having more than 360, oir even 
180, thoufand yearns tg laft yet. The pro- 
phetical year, indeed, is called by one name 
^^ma.'S\oq) Enicaitos^ C. ix- I5j. and the com- 
Rion year by another (fiTc^) JS^c?;, C. xx. 2. 
(for which reafon alfo this latter word EtoSy 
is to be underftood with the number ^(^6, 

226 Introduction. 

igaxofl-ta £^>1xo^7a£^, fdl, sly,.) But this we do 
do not offer as a full proof that fome of the 
times are prophetical and fome common : 
fince (^/Affa) bemera^ a day, and (fA»i') meity 
a month, are ufed both in the prophetical 
and in the common fignification. Yet we 
ihould not entirely lofe fight of this diftinc- 
tion of names of the year; fince two forts of 
years neceffarily infer alfo two forts of mo7tths 
and days proportionate to them. But here 
comes fomething much more worthy of our 
obfervation 'y the number of the Beafl not 
only confifls of human years, nearly as the 
loco years do; but it is alfo the Bowidary 
between the figurative and the common times 
and as it were a bridge over which we pafs 
from the former to the latter ; and therefore 
it is with great propriety that the 42 months 
of the Beafl are mentioned in the text before 
the number 666. We are not to expound 
the times fometimes in the prophetical, fome- 
times in the common meaning according to 
our fancy; but before the number of the Beafl 
is expired the Times zrt prophetical 2inA enig- 
matical: the number 666 itfelf is />^r/^ enig^ 
maiical by leaving out the word year^ and 

Part in. §. liii. 227 

partly common^ fince this very word, when 
we have once found the way to difcover it, 
fignifies human years : and when this num- 
ber is expired^ after a while come the yet 
remaining times, particularly the 1 000 years 
fo often mentioned in the text, in the com- 
mon acceptation. 

So here is a Gradation again, with the 
trumpets of the firft, fecond, third and fourth 
angel, there is no indication of time. At 
the trumpet of the fifth angel begin the pro- 
phetical months and other times of the three 
woes. Under the trumpet of the feventh 
angel, after the expiration of the number of 
the Beaft, come (as before-mentioned) the 
times that belong to the finifhing of the 
Myftery of God, as C. xi. and xx, in the 
common meaning. Juft fo, the expreffions 
in the Prophecy from the iv'*" Chapter on- 
ward are very figurative % but afterward, 
when the angel gives John the open book, 
are much clearer. Several things under the 
trumpets are to be underftood more figu- 
ratively^ and under the vials more properly 
or literally, tho' expreffed in the fame terms. 
And when the vials are all poured out, the 

228 Introdugtioi^. 

fpeech is yet flainer. For this reafon the 
number of th« Beall, C. xiiL i8, is excepted 
•from the figurative way of expreffion that 
prevails in tlie middle chapters, as being a 
human number^, or in ufe among men : and 
•ib is alfo the human-angelic meafure after- 
wardv C. xxi. 17, excepted from the com- 
mon way of expreffion that prevails in the 
latter chapters. Both thefe exceptions indi- 
cate that the other expreffions before are to 
be taken figuratively, and thofe that come 
nfter,, properly. See alfo what is faid here- 
after, in the Expojitioriy on C xi. 8, and 
C. xvii. 5, concerning fpiritual and myftical 
Denominations. After this manner does 
this Prophecy always fhed the light of its 
clearnefs and perfpicuity backward from the 
latter to the former both Things and Times. 
The Wisdom comes at the expiration of 
the number of the Beaft (not that wifdom 
which men acquire to themfelves by ever fo 
ingenious devices of an acute underiEland- 
■ing, but that which God beftows on us in 
the V/ord of Truth) and from thence for- 
ward the Wijdom will be continually more 
and more diicovered; and oh! what an ad- 

Part hi. §. liit. 229 

mirably beautiful and immenfe fum mufl 
that come to at laft ! Then alfo will the 
times defcribed by the prophet Daniel be 
laid open : mean time we need not be dif- 
turbed whatever may be the proper length 
of the days, ki his prophecy which belong 
to the New Teftament ; §. i. God has no- 
tified days and years in divers manners ac- 
cording to his free and holy Will, as Gen. 
xl. 12, 18. xli. 26, 27. Ifai. xxxviii. 5, 8 ! 
and fo the Revelation may very well be dif- 
ferent from iXamel in the length of the times^ 
as it is from Ezekiel in the length of the 
vie^Juring rod^ in §. xliii. N°. xxviii. 

Some may fay, by way of a general Ob* 
jedion, you dwell too lojig upon this bufmefs 
of CljTOfiology : I would rather have fome- 
i)^mgfiivoury and edifying. 

I anfwer : when heretofore in my Plan, ^ 
I laid down a Summary of the Chronology of 
the Apocalypfe^ it was thought too little ^^ 
now when I draw it out at large and diftindl- 
ly, it is too much. How then fliall this 
matter be adjufted ? We ought to receive 
thankfully whatever God gives us, or re- 

^ See Preface §, iv. 


veals to us. He who has already edified 
himfelf as he ought, in Faith, in Love, and 
in Hope by help of the fundamental Truths 
of Chriftianity, will find by refpedful at- 
tention, a moft gracious nourifliment of the 
Ipiritual life in any Difquifition concerning 
the holy Scriptures, be it ever fo fpecula- 
tive : for inftance, in meditating upon Da- 
niel, as well as on Ifaiah. He who is out 
in the Sunihine will get warm, whatever he 
may be employed in befides. Whoever 
confiders and receives every thing in a man-* 
ner fuitable to the Defigns of God, will in 
every thing not be long enquiring after edi- 
fication, but will adually be edified himfelf 
efpecially by praifing God in all his Words, 
his Judgments, his Ways and his Works. 
But whofoever flights now one thing, then 
another thing, under pretence of its not be- 
ing edifying enough, has not yet taken due 
care to get edification even by what he reck-- 
ens to be very edifying. Let a man be only 
right in fundamentals 5 and it will be found 
how rich a Kernel is contained in the fl:ell 
of chronological difquifitions. 

Part hi. §. liii, liv. 231 
In a word, if any perfon is puzzled with 
thefe things, and cannot fee the reafon of 
his perplexity, the truth of the matter is, 
either he goes upon other Principles, or elfe 
has no taft for this Way. It is to no pur- 
pofe to begin to deal with fuch a man, till 
haply he meet with the truth, upon which he 
now looks fo fhy, from fome other quarter. 
The Truth will prevail in due time: and 
though the Fire at iirft lighting raifes a thick 
fmoak, yet the Flame will break out ftrong 
and clear. 


The other periods of time, colledled in 
§. XXXV. and not yet difcufs'd fhall be treat- 
ed of in the Exposition, and it fhall be 
ihewn in each place whether they are pro- 
phetical or common times. And thofe pe- 
riods which are not fo exadlly limited but fall 
in between others that are, for example, 
the intervals between the three woes, fliall 
be inquired into: and laftly thofe things 
which fland in the text without any cha- 
racter of time fliall be laid open : at the 
ilime time the Reader mufl be referred back 

232 Introduction. 

to this Introduction whenever there is 

occafiou for it. 


In the mean time we have here a new 
confirmation of what was remarked in §. 
XIV y concerning the four Spheres or Cir- 
cles. For 

In the feven Epistles there is no other 
time indicated but only the ten days tribu- 
lation at Smyrna, Q ii. 10, From whence 
it is evident that thefe feven epiftles do not 
mean nor point out feven periods of time 
that fhould extend, one after another, thro* 
many ages ; but have a view feverally, to 
the then feven churches in Afia, and all to- 
gether to the whole Church of Christ 
without diftinftion of place or time. Thus 
this mark of time, by its being the only 
one belonging to the feven epiftles, fhews 
us, as by a glance, what they relate to. 

It is juft fo with the Seals. For with 
the feven feals there is no other Note of Time 
(excepting that of about half an hour, which 
is a diilerent cafe, as we fhall fee on C. 
viii. I,) but the Chro?ios under the fiftli feaJ. 
Whence it will appear that even this feal 

Part hi. §. lv. 233 

by itfelf extends '^from the firft perfecution 
of the Chrijftians to the war of the Beafl 
with the Saints, yea quite on to the Judge- 
ment of the great Whore ; and fo the other 
feals (which comprehend all things vifible 
and invifible and the Sovereignty of the 
Lamb over both), fiin on parallel with the 

Whosoever looks for fucti periods of 
time under the {even Trumpets as imme- 
diately follow one another, mufl make fix- 
teen fuch at leaft, by virtue of §. xiii. Yet 
it is evident from the widely extended peri- 
ods exprelly mentioned from C. ix. to C. xx. 
that the feven Trumpets, which are chiefly 
againft the Kingdom of the World, extend 
through the whole fpace from the date of 
the prophecy to the end of all things, yea 
even into eternity. 

F f 

s Viz. the ^virtue or ej}^ of it ; for the opening of the fe* 
ven Seals by the Lamb being an emblemattical reprefentation 
of Jesus Christ the Mediator's receiving all Power in Hea^ 
ven and Earth, i. e. of the folemn Inauguration of Christ 
into his mediatorial Kingdom ; the Efe^ of it namely, the 
Pojfejfion and Exercife of that Poiver ; mult continue till he 
deliver up the Kingdom to the Father, 

234 Introduction, 

The feVen Vials by which the dilorderljr 
power of the Beaft is defeated, pafs quickly 
over : and therefore there is no time men- 
tioned in the whole xvi'^ Chapter. They 
begin the laft, and are the foft over. 

The Viah^ the I'riimpetSy the Seals^ and 
the Epijiles are beautifully interwoven 3 and 
like the pipes and flops of an Organ, at 
times fome of them are iilent, at others a- 
gain all of them found aloud together. 

Hence it appears that the Opinion men- 
tioned in the Preface, §. vi, viz, that almofl 
every thing even from the firft Seal to the 
binding of Satan, is yet to come^ is utterly 
groundlefs. Whoever would not be too 
hafly in his decifions in fo important an af- 
fair, let him maturely confider the admoni- 
tions which will be given in their proper 



Thus much is enough by way o? Intro- 

duBioji: the reft follows in the Exposition 5 

in perufing of which the reader is defired 

ever to caft an eye backward and think o£ 

this InTropuction. 

1 235 ] 

*" :\yr: 



O F T H E 

Expofition of the Revelation. 

— ^■^^— — ■— "^^ i— ■— — — ■ « 111 

'^^^)S(HUS we have finifhcd the Expo- 
^T y^ siTioN of tht Revelafion in the or- 
)f^^^)J( der of the text ; but th.ere remain 
yet a few things to be treated of, which 
could not be fo fitly brought in on occafioD 
of any particular text. Thefe relate either 
to the Eixpojition in general, or to the nearer 
determination of fome Times. Here there^ 
fore we ihall exhibit 

I. A BRIEF chronological table of the prin- 
cipal points of the prophecy and of the 
completion of it. 

II. A MODEST attempt of a more prcclfe 
determination of the times of the Beaji. 

III. The marks or charaBcrs of a true ex- 
ffiticn of the revelation. 

236 Conclusion, 

IV. A DETAIL of the expedations of 
jnen from time to time: or, an hijlorical 
account of the expojitions of this prophecy thro' 
all ages. 

V. An account of the influence wliich the 
cxpofition of the prophecies has had on hu^ 
man affairs, 

VI. An exajnination of fome modern pro- 
phecies that are handed about in feveral places. 

VII. Some wholefome admonitions,^ 

* The Reader is dcfired before he proceeds farther to read 
§ver again the xith paragraph of the preface attentively. 



of the Apocalypfe. 

V Sketch, according to the Text. 

A\ M, 3940. Jesus Christ born. 

3943. The V year of the Dionyflan 
/Era, or our ufual way of 
reckoning the year of our 
Lord y which begins three 
years too late. 


Part I. 237 

A. A\ Donh 30. Jesus Christ fufters, dies, 

rifes from the dead, gives 
fome hints of his revelation 
(John xxi. 22, 23, Adts i. 
7.) and afcends to heaven. 
96. The Revelation is written by 
St. John — Ch. L 
The coming of the Lord 
is declared to the seven 
Churches in Afia and their 
Angels — ii, iii. 

B. 97, 98. The seven Seals are o- 

pened, and on the opening 
of the fifth the Chroma is 
notified — iv, v, vi. 
The seven Trumpets are 
given to the feven angels 
— — vii, viii, 

C. The Lord cometh. John 
is to tarry (Jo. xxi. 22) no 

D. 11'' iii'^ iv'"' The Trz/z/z/^/i of the 1^'^ 11'' 
v''' Centuries, iii''' and iv'^ angels — viij. 

E. 510— 589. The /;;y? Wo, under the 

trumpet oithtfftb angel-ix, 

F. 589 — 634. The Interval between the 

frjl and fcovid wo. 

238 Conclusion. 

G. 634— 84o.The7^fcW Wo, under the 

trumpet of the fixth angel 

C. ix. 

H. 800 — 1836. The Non-chronos and the 
many Kings — x, xi. 

L 840 — 947. The Interval between the 
Jecoiid and third wo - xi. 14, 

K. 864—1521. The 1260 days of the Wo- 
man in the wildernefs after 
fhe had brought forth the 
Man-child, or rather, man- 
ly So7i — xii. 6c 

L. 947 — 1836. The third Wo, under the 

trumpet of thefevenfb angel 

xii. 12. 

M. 1058 — 1836. Thc'Time and T/Wj and half 
aTime ofthtWoman xii. 14. 

jsj/ W'it/n»theIimtsT^)^Q Times of the Beaji m 

of the i^rmes, ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ j^j^ ^^^^^ 

tion — xiii. 5. 

O.1208&1209. War with the Saints. End 
oixhcChronos mention'd un- 
der the letter B. ~ xiii. 7. 

^ TVithin the limits, ^f.] a more particular determination 
of the time of this article, as near as it can be fettled, is the 
fubjeft of the ii'» part of this conclufion. 

Part L 239 

P. 1 6 14. The Angel with the everlajl-- 

ing gofpel or glad tidings for 

an Aion or Mwxxm to come 

C. xiv. 6. 

Q^ 1836. The end of the iVb«-\ 

chronos and the many 


The fulfilling of the 
Words of God, and 
finijhing of the Myfiery 
of God. 

The Repentance of the 
Survivors in the ^r^^/ )xix, xx, 

The end of the poort 
Time and of the 3 i 

The defirudiion of the 

The 1000 Tears of the 
binding ofSatanhtgm,, 
R. afterward, The loofing of Satan for^ 
a little Seajon, 
The 1000 Tears m 
which thcSaints reign, 

*xx. 3.4. 




The End of the little Seajon 

C. XX. 7. 


The E?id of the World xx. i i . 


All Things new xxi. xxii. 

This Table may be look'd upon perhaps 
as ufeful, perhaps as fuperfluous^ it will 
however be of fervice to thofe who make a 
proper and difcreet ufc of it. I call it but 
an Effay -, and mdii earne/l/y protest and 
enter this Caution, that I by no means pre- 
tend to have adapted the years to every ar-^ 
tide with equal certainty. I only do ?.s Geo- 
graphers, who often in their Maps fill up 
the diftances between well known parts of 
Boundaries and Coafts, as near the truth as 
they can, on account of neceffary connexion. 
But it is, at the leajl, adapted to iliew in what 
Order the periods begin and end one after 
another: and even when a clearer light fliall 
break out, there will be found but little cc- 
cafion for alteration, in the years, and much 
lefs in the length, rank, connexion and dijlances 
of the periods. And farther, this rough 
Draught will be of fervice to enable the men 
of thofe times to reftify what is ?iot fo exaBly 
adjufted; which draught (N. B.) is here laid 
Aownfo particidarly, only for that end. 

Part I, 241 

IF. Sketch, according to Hiftory. 

If we take the principal hiftories of 16 

centuries from St. John's days to our own, 

adding the epithets which hiftorians give to 

feveral of thefe ages ; we fhall find that the 

Prophecy and the Hijiory of the Completion, 

proceed together in order. 

Cent^ 11'. The Difperfion of the Jtws by 

Adrian — C. viii. 7. 

III. The Irruption of the Goths and 

other foreign nations — 8. 

IV. The Age of Arianifm [Seculum 

Ariajtiini] — — 10. 

V, ThQ Extm^Ionofth^ Roman E??!" 

/^/r^* under Auguftulus viii. 12. 

VI. The Dijirejfes of the Jews in 

Perfia -^ — ix. i. 

VII. Mahomet and the Saracefis [with 

their Cavalry] — 13, 

VIII. The Contention about Image- 

Worjhip — — 20. 

IX. ThtAgeofPhothis: andalfothe 

Ruler of the Natiom born x, 1 1. 

2^2 Conclusion. 

Cent^ X. Seculu??i irtfelix [in which the third 

ivo began] — C. xii. 12. 

XI. Secuhm Hildebrandimm \\kit Beaji 

out of ih.t Sed\ ^— xiii. i. 

XII. The papal Poie^fr begins — 5. 

XIII. Crufade againft the Waldenfes [or 

Vaiidois] — ■ — ■ 7. 

XIV. T]\Q Age of WickUff, The middle 

of the third wo. -*- 7. 

XV. Tht Age of Coimcih \y\z^ at Con- 

ftance, Bafil and Florence] the 

middle and height of the papal 

po\ver — — 8. 

XVI. The Reformation — 9. 

XVII. The everlafting or aeviternal golpel 

xiv. 6. 8. 
XVIII. The Adoration of the Beafi and 
his Image — — 9. 

The other intercurrent Points every man 
may add [to this Table] out of the Expofition^ 
according to his liking. And whoever com- 
pares thefe two fketches together will per- 
ceive the agreement of the Prophecy and the 
completion from beginning to end. 

Part II. 243 


In which the Duration of the Beaji, and 
how near the E7id of it may be, is con- 
jeBurally affigned ; and thereby the chra- 
nological Table of Part I'' compleated. 

§• I- 

Among all the periods that are now in 
courfe, that of the Times of the Beafl chiefly 
engages the attention of men, on account 
of its end being expeded fomewhat fooner 
than that of the reft. So if an expofitor does 
not proceed very cautioufly with regard to 
theniy many may take offence and be dif- 
pofed to flight the Expoftion not only of the 
'Ti7nes of the Beaft, but alfo of the Beajl it- 
felf, and even that of the other Periods too, 
nay of the whole prophecy. To prevent 
this evil and injiijlice, I judged it proper not 
to toucih upon this point [of the EW of the 
Months and Number of the Beaf] either in 
the Introduftion or the Expofition, or even 
in the chronological Table in the firft part 
of this conclufion .; but to delay bringing it 

244 Conclusion, 

on the carpet to this place ^ and fet it entirely 
h ^^fi!f^ fi^^^ i^ is not proper that it fhould 
be wholly paffed overUn filence. 

Now with truth and juflice I aver^ that 
tho' the event fhould vary ever fo much from 
[what will be laid down in] this fecond part 
(which however will not be found egregioujly 
wrong) that will affed: this part only. For 
the connexion of this with the reft is not 
like that of a ftone with others in a wall, 
which if it falls out feveral more muft folr 
low; but like that of a fquare of glafs, 
which may be crack'd or broken without 
any damage to the reft of the window. Let 
us fee then what ufeful truth we may meet 

11. Whatever God propofeth to us i^ 
his word is a proper objed: of our belief, in 
great or fmall matters, fpiritual or temporal, 
whether it be concerning things thcmfelves, 
or their circumftances of place, time, man- 
ner, &c. Infidelity is a conceited, ca- 
pricious quality : it chujes what it likes, and 
rejeBs the reft, and fometimes under plaujible 
pretences. But Faith does honour to Gop 
in every things When Sarah was pro- 

Part IL 245 

mifed a Son within ifhort time-^ it would not 
have been right in her to have believed ojiJy 
the promife concerning the Son^ and not the 
circumftance of T'ime too. When God 
told Hezekiah that he would prolong his 
life 5 if he had pleafed to conceal from him 
the fifteen years, it would not have become 
Hezekiah to enquire how long. On the o-- 
ther hand Hezekiah's gratitude would have 
been deficient, if he had acknowledged only 
the lengthning of his life, but not regarded 
the notice given him of xh^ fifteen years y un- 
der the pretence of modefty. Had the 
Ninevites believed only the threatned defiruc^ 
tien of their city, but not that it would come 
to pafs in forty days ; without doubt their 
repentance would not have been fo earnefl. 
The Samaritan Lord would not believe that 
mfour-and-twenty hours there fliould be great 
plenty ; and it coll him his life. If the 
Ifraelites at Babylon had difregarded the 
feventy years ^ they would either not have 
fuited themfelves to that flated tinier or they 
would have been fo accuftomed to Babylon 
that they would have longed no more for 
their own country. And (to give an in- 

246 Conclusion. 

ftance as to the circumftance of place) it 
was great ftubbornnefs in the Jews that they 
would not believe Jeremiah when he forbad 
their flight into Egypt, The more particu- 
lar the divine declaration is, the belief of it is 
the more difficult and the more uncommon, 
but at the fame time the more generous, 
and therefore the more acceptable to God. 

Will you fay? yea, if St. John was now 
living and would fhew us that part of the 
Revelation which belongs to us, and the 
determination of the times and other circum- 
ftances ; then / would believe. I anfwer, 
if St. John was now alive and fhew'd all 
that, but was not known to be St. John: 
people would rejed him in per/on juft as they 
•do the bock he has written. Does it make 
any difference as to the thing, whether God 
<ryives it to his Church once for all or by lit- 
tie and little ? But in the former of thofe 
wavs our faith is much more generous, and 
more fuitable to the maturity of faith under 
the New Teftament. Therefore the I'imes 
of the horrible Beaft^ fo grandly defcribed in 
the Prophecy, muft not be a 7natter of indif- 
ference to us. 

Part IL 247 

III. That the Beajl is the 'Hildebrandine 
Papacy we have clearly proved in the Expo- 

Jition^ VIZ, on C. xiii. i. from the agreemejif 
of the prophecy with the completion as re- 
corded in hiftoryj which proof alone may 
fully fatisfy plain and unlearned perfons. 
But to this we have added the fymtnetry of 
the whole feries of the prophecy in the ful- 
filling of one point after another. Both 
thefc proofs can be comprehended by any 
one, tho' he has no regard to Chronology 
either the true or the falfe. But the calcii^ 
lation of the number of the Beafl confirms 
all, in a manner that nothing elfe can, and 
ftill the more exaftly we proceed in it the 
ftronger is that confirmation. 

IV. The whole duration of the Beajl (in 
its three partitions, of which we have taken 
a view in the expofition of C. xvii. 8.) falls 
certainly within the limits of the Time and Times 
and half Time of the Woman (which we have 
confidered in explaining C. xii. 14) : and 

* i. e. The Power ufurped by the Popes for more than 
600 years paft, which was firll claimed and violently feized 
by Hildebrandy a cunning and refolute man. When he was 
chofen Pope, A, D. 1073, he took ths name of Gregory 

the vn*\ 


very probably it goes on in the manner i'd 
forth in the Table which we fhall give a 
little below. 

V. The times of the Beaft being includ- 
ed in the 3 ~ times of the Woman, and 
thefe latter reaching but to A**. 1836 at 
fartheft : the former cannot run out beyond 
that year. So that a Table adjufted to that 
term cannot he far from the truth. 

VI. Ever fmce I difcover'd the folution 
of the prophetical times, I have always placed 
the duration of the Beaji between the year 
1076 and 1836 j and do flilL But as this 
duration is confider ably yZ^cr/^r than the fpace 
between thefe two years, various confidera- 
tions and reflexions on hiftory kept me long- 
in fufpence concerning the proper term of 
the beginning and end of it. In this cafe I 
had in my view chiefly the prophecy itfelf ; 
and when afterward I not only found a fuller 
folution of the prophecy, but alfo by means 
of that difcovered the true fum of the years 
of the World notified in the Scriptures ; from 
thence I came at laft to this determination 
of the point, viz, let us reckon the firft rifing 
of the Beajl out of the Sea to be the triumph 

Part II. 249 

of Gregory over the Emperor, at Canofa, 
A° 10775 and iht power given to the Bea/i to 
be the elevation of Celejline W to the Papacy; 
and begin the number 666, to which the 42 
months are equal, in difecondary courfe, at 
the rijing out of the fea^ but, in xk^t primary 
courfe of it at the commencement of that 
Power. And here we may well reft the 
matter, as there is no appearance of any 
third Epoch to arife inftead of thefe two. 

Since the Author has, in his Gnomon, fuhlijhed 
tivo years after this, on a clofer attention to the fub- 
jefff reduced the t'wo tables in this part to one, and 
made fame imtrovements on them: injiead of thofe 
and the refeBidns on them in this ii^ part, IJhall 
give the Table in the Gnomon more fully exprejfed . 
<ivith the principal Obfervations there made on it ; 
as follows. 

In my Expofition of the Revelation (Part 
ii*^ of the Conclufion) there is an eflay to di- 
geft in a table the 'l^imes of the Woman after 
the wings were given her, and of the Beaf -, 
which are now more fully explained and the 
parts of them more exadly fitted together, 
by comparing them in feveral places with the 

prophecies of Daniel, And here let the 

H h 

250 Conclusion. 

reader remember what I have often protefted, 
oimodejty ^nA fobriety on this head, 'till the 
event afford us a clear Explanation concern* 
ing future things. 



" A' 1058, Sept. 2' Wed. Thetv^o wings of 

the great Eagle 
given to the Wo- 

^ 1077, Sept. I'^Frid. The rifing of the 

in the perfon of 
Gregory VII. 

*= 1143? Sept. 25, Sat. The beginning of 

the 42 months of 
the power of the 
beaft, in Celef- 
tine II. 

^ 1810, May 21, Sat.\Theendofthe42 

June 1/ N. 5. jmonths,andof the 

number of the 

^ AH the dates after this are according to the Neiv-Stile 5 
which was £rft introduced A^- 1582, and received latdy in 
Britain, A^- 1752, 

Part II. 251 

beaft. Soon af- 
ter, when the vials 
are poured out, 
the beaft is noty 
butBabylon reigns 
as Queen. 
1 832, Od. 14, Mon» The rifmg of the 

beaft out of the 
Abyfs. After 

one hour, viz, 

^ 1832,061.22, Tuefd. The 10 kings give 

their royal power 
to the beaft. 

' 1836, June 1 8, Sund. Thedeftruftion of 

the beaft. The 
end of the 3 ~ 
times, &c. 

The Intervals. 

The letters •' *»' ^' ^"^^ mark the ierm at which each Inter- 
val begins, which is underftood to end at the next letter : as 
the Interval ^ means that from » to *>> 19 years. 

Days and Hours : Weeks and Days. 

* 6938, 12 or 991, I f- 

' 24i3o> 3 ttI or 3447, i fully. 
' 2:43495, o or 34785^ O' 

2^2 Conclusion. 

^ . 8170, 22 11^^ or 1 167, 2. 

*" 7, 22 |f7 or I, I almoft, 

' i33 5> o or i 9o> 5- 

284077! GO or 40582 f in all. 

They are alfo 5797 f fquare weeks; they 
are 777 1- years; they are precifely 686 of 
Daniel's units, of which by and by: laftly 
they are tV*^ part of the age of the world. 

We will iirfl illuftrate the Inter- 
vals; and then the Terms. 

The lUuftrationofthe Intervals. 


^ contains 19 bating one day, 
"" contains 66 —- precifely. 
' contains 666 |4y precifely. 
^ contains 22 HI fully. 
* contains c —- very nearly. 
^ contains 3 vfr fully, 
together 45 ^y^ precifely. 
together 1 1 1 f precifely, 
together yyy -f precifely. 
Daniel's 70 weeks confift of 70 times 7, 
that is, 490 units or parts; which altogether 
are equal to ^^^ j- years ; as we have fhewn 
in C. X. of Ordo T'emponm. It is very re- 

Part il. 253 

markable now how exadly thefe Intervals 
may be reduced to the Units of Daniel, For, 

The Interval " contains precifely 588 fuch 
Units which make 1 2 fquare weeks, i. e, 7 
times 7 (or 49) multiplied by 12. 

The Intervals ^ and ^ together, are 78 
Units and not a Day over. 

The Intervals ^' ' and ^ together are 666 
units, or 275795 tt ^^ys^ which do not ex- 
ceed the appendices of the days in thefe In- 
tervals full 17 hours. A furprifing agree- 
ment! for tht number ^f the Beajl is in fuch 
terms of expreffion faid to be 666, that it 
^laay be fo in feveral ways. (See the Expofi- 
tion on C. xiii. 18.) Thus the number 666, 
viz. in DaniePs Units contains th^jirjlandfe- 
cond portions of the duration of the Beail, 
whereas in Tears it contains the fecond only. 

The Intervals ^> '> ^ together are 20 units 

The Intervals ^> '' '- ^ ' are 98 units, 
which are two fquare weeks. 

The. Intervals '' ''' '> '» '^ ^ together yyy z. 
years are 686 units precifely; or two cubical 
weeks, that is 7 times 7 times 7, multiplied 
by 2. 

254 Conclusion. 

The numbers (and the periods, which 
are equal, the' enigmatically expreiTed by. 
different numbers) in Daniel and in the Re- 
velation, are moft exadly and ealily reduced 
and changed into one another; which is no 
flight proof of the truth of our refolution of 

The Illuftration of the Terms. 

^ The wings given to the woman. Thia 
is alfo the beginning of her 3 4 times. See 
the Expofition on C. xii. 14, ' %'here JIj^ is 
nourijhed a time <2c! 

"" CoNCEHNiNG the rifing of the beaft ou^ 
of the fea, and the day of it, Sept. i'\ we 
have treated on C. xiii, i. efpecially in; the 
ninth thefis,- &c. 

' Of the power given to the Beaft for 42 
months, and of the beginning of thefe months 
we have treated onC. xiii. 18, §. xii. This 
fp^C^ is equal to the number of the Beaft 666. 

'^ Vv^KEN the 42 months of power are 
out, v/e muft not conclude that immediately 
the Beaft is not-, for he %ims even before thefo 
months. But, on pouring out the vial of 
tlie fifth angel, his kingdom becomes fo 

Part II. 255 

darkened that it is weaker now than before 
the beginning of the 42 months. Therefore 
it muft be obferved, at the proper time, 
whether that angel fliall pour out his vial up- 
on the feat or throne of the Beaft at the end 
of the 42 months ; and whether the Beaft is 
immediately to carry Babylon, while he him- 
felf is not. This Interval in which the Beaft 
is not, is nearly the fame as the Semitempuf- 
culum^ in Qrd, Temp. p. 318. 

^ We take the one hour during which 
the ten horns receive power as kings with the 
beaft, in the prophetical length; becaufe it 
comes before the thoufand years, which are 
to be underftood in the common meaning. 
See the Introduction §. Li 11, about the middle. 

^ The Beaft with the ten kings (who had 
juft before given up all their power to him) 
fliall make the Whore defolate. 

Rome was founded in the 3961'^ year of 
the Julian period, the 2g'^ of Oftober (as 
Des Vignoles proves towards the end of his 
Chronology) on a Thurfday. From that 
time to A. D. 1832, the 6545''' of the Ju- 
lian period, the 22*^ of Odober, Tuefday, 

* The Space of Z2 | Years. 

256 Conclusion. 

(which is the day mentioned in our table) 
there are after fubftrading the excefs of the 
Julian year, precifely 2584 years, or 1 2 6 1 8 6 
weeks and almoft 5 days, from that Thurf- 
day to this Tuefday. What will befall 
Rome^ 76 years "hence, on her Birth-day, 
will be worth the obfervation of thofe who 
fhall live at that time. 

These two Intervals ^ and ^ are moft in- 
timately conne6i:ed. iToe faints fiatl be 
given into the hand or power of that remark- 
able Horn until A time and times and 
HALF A TIME, Dan. vii. 25. The other 
King when he comes , mufi cojitinue a short 
SPACE, Rev. xvii. 10. On both thefe 
paiTages there are many conjedlures in the 
Expcftion on this latter place: but a third 
paffage helps us out, viz. T^he ten horns receive 
power as kings with the Beaji one Hour, 
ver, 12. 

Now, \ht f:ort fpace is the Interval '^ and ^ 
taken together^ for it contains the whole 
time of the continuance of the other king in 
the third part of the duration of the Beaft: 
^ is the one hour : and ^ is the remainder of 

» FromOaobcr, 1756. 

Part II. 257 

all the preceeding Intervals and contains 1335 
common days. Prefently after thefe follow 
the 1335 prophetical dzy^ (viz. of the length 
ufed in Daniel's " prophecies, and which we 
have fliewed, in Ord, T^emp, p. 379, to be 
equal altogether, to 1000 years) promifed 
in Dan. xii. 12 : fo that the miferable commoji 
days of expectation and fuifering, are impUedy 
and the 1335 ^^ppy prophetical days, to be 
come to, or arrived at, are exprejfed. 

The time and times and half a time in Dan. 
vii. 25, fall within this Interval ^5 but do 
not compleatly fill it : and I agree with the 
Rev. Langius that they are 3 f years, but 
confifting of 1278 days (agreeably to the 
length of the natural year) not of 1260, as 
he takes it, nor of 1333 -|-, which one 
might think of. 

But how fhall even thefe 1278 days 
be reconciled with the 1335? Ifhall;zo/ an- 
fwer, that either number is 3 years and a 
piece or half, and not 4 years: as the Inter- 
val ^' either with or without the addition of 

" This is different from the length of the Apocalyptical 

258 Conclusion. 

the Interval ^' agrees with the antient tradi-^ 
tion, that Antichrijl is to rage 3 ^ years :— 
but rather this, that Daniel feems to have 
in view what the Beaft rifen out of the abyfs 
is to do in the land of Ifraehy whereas in the 
Revelation the Beaft has fomething to do 
elfewherey before he comes thither: as the 
deftroying of Rome, &c. 

Our Table may be looked upon as un- 
certain in fo?ne particular articles ; but the 
nvhole of it, as far as it extends, is ftrongly 
fupported both by hiftorical and exegetical 
proofs. Thofe of the fix Intervals of 

this period which are lefs precifely deter- 
mined in the'Revelation, are determined out 
of Daniel; as, the exiftence of the Beaft 
before the 42 months, his non-exiftence, 
and the ftiort fpace of the other kings and 
the 3 -\ times, which Daniel had exprefled 
in the proper tenns^ are in the Revelation in- 
cluded in mcf:ort fpace: Again the time 
which Daniel had exprefled enigmatically by 
1335 days the Apocalypfe explains by the 
proper terms of 1000 years. Surely 

thefe things are not accidental! We do 
not indeed ajjert every part with equal affur- 

Part II. 259 

ance : but we propofe them all, that pofterity 
may have notice of what they are to obferve, 
and may partly corredl, partly confirm them, 
according to the event. 

[Thus far the Gnomon,'] 

We are not. fondly dejirous of affigning the 
ends or terms of the Periods : but when any 
period (for example, the times of the Beaft) 
appears from the text, to be fuch or fuch a 
lengthy and is found in hiftory to have begun 
at fuch or fuch a time ; the beginning and 
length of It cannot be difcovered and at the 
fame time the endho, concealed; which is in- 
deed the principal, or even almoft the only 
thing, fome perfons ufe to enquire after. A 
modeft Expofitor does not buiy himfelf much 
^houtfuch terms before the time ; but rather 
makes the moll profitable ufe he can of the 
fubjedl-matter. On the contrary thofe pitch 
upon the term oyily^ which could not be con- 
cealed from them, and at firfl make too 
much of it, and foon after too little; and 
befides, flight the falutary important truth 
itfelf, of which that was but a circumftancc. 
Were it only the ftupid or intoxicated chil- 
dren of this world that did thus 3 it wQuld 

260 Conclusion. 

be nothing ftrange. But that men fearing 
God and therefore fearching after the dif- 
coveries made in the prophecies, fhould be- 
have in this manner is a fhrewd token that 
the word of God is as a ftrange language to 
us and that we are far from the true Ikill of 
fuiting onrfelves to the time, and therefore 
are in the greater danger. How will 

the watchman warn the people, when he 
himfelf will not believe that the enemy is 
drawing together his forces and approach- 
ing? which of the two is the more raih an4 
inconfiderate ? the man who brings certain 
hitelligence of the enemy's coming, and be- 
fides mentions the time when he co77JeBures he 
may com.e; or the watchman who flights the 
whole. Thofe are in a yet worfe con- 

dition, who not only give over all watching, 
but rejedt, with the Expoiition, all Prophe- 
cy and the whole Scripture at once, making 
no more account of the one than the other. 
Thofe well deferve that they fliould fliimble 
at the Scripture and at both right and wrong 
Expofltions of it, ^;7^ fall, Ifaiah viii. 15. 
This is the way of the fews, and of the In- 
fideh too; an eafy and commodious, but an 

Part II. 261 

unhallow'd method. They quickly catch at 
any thing in the New Teftament, or in any 
part of the Scriptures, that feems to give of- 
fence, rejoice over it, turn ajide from the 
truth and are caft away. He too w^ho 

makes this Conclujion ; There is no appearance 
yet that it JJmdd come to pafs this or that 
yeary therefore it will never happen; — or this^ 
It has not come to pafs this or that year^ there- 
fore, neither will it in tbefe following years ; 
therefore, an Expofitor muft not be allowed 
to mend his term, or prolong it a little : He 
too, I fay, not only deals very unfairly with 
an Expofitor, efpecially when he afcribes to 
him any opinion that is none of his, nor ever 
was, but alfo greatly offends even againft 
the word of God. The fubjedt-matter, 
fuppofe is certain, and the length of the pe- 
riod rightly determined : yet when the be- 
ginni?2g of the period really has a latitude in 
hiftory (of human compoiition, which is of- 
ten not over clearly written, nor the feveral 
fteps of its progrefs diftindlly remarked) the 
end alfo muft needs appear to us to have a la- 
titude : neverthelefs we determine this end 
conjeBurally^ when either the length of the 

262 Conclusion. 

period and its conjeBural beginning point it 
out to us without farther fearch ; or when 
we cannot attain, otherwife than by a con- 
jeBiiral to the true and precife determination 5 
which the event at laft difcovers. Let us 
take for example fome paji tranfaftion 5 the 
fecond wo began in the VIP^ Century, as 
many Expofitors have rightly obferved with- 
out any affiftance from the fupputation of 
the apocalyptical times. Now it may have^ 
begun A" 622, at Mahomet's flight; or A* 
632, at his death; or A° 634, when the 
Saracens conquered Arabia and Syria ; or 
A'' 637, when they fubdued the kingdom 
of Periia. From one or other of thefe be- 
ginnings, 207 years (nearly the duration of 
that wo) reach to A*" 829, or 839, or 840, 
or 844, &c. A man that does not know or 
remember the hiftory of thofe years is here in 
the fame fituation as to the choice of one or 
other of the years, as if he was to determine 
the precife time of fomething yet to come : fo, 
the event muft turn the fcales. Suppofe he 
finds nothing confiderable in the year 829, 
it is much the fame cafe as if he fhould {^t 
tlie term of a period that is not yet run out, 

Part IL 263 

too early. But he is not quite miftaken for 
all that : for no man can deny that foon after 
that time the power of the Saracens was re- 
duced, tho' perhaps no man to this day may 
have enquired into the precife year. Ap- 
ply this to the times of the Beafi^ which are 
now in their courfe. Had they begun for 
example A° 1073 ^'^^y "^^ft have ended A** 
1739. And now that this term is part with- 
out any great revolution, it cannot for that 
be faid to be all over; only we are to advance 
one ftep or more, from the year 1073 to 
Ibme following year, or years, when the be- 
ginning of thofe times may moft probably 
be fixed according to the beft accounts hif- 
tory furnifheth us. The more circum- 

ftantially the conjectures are expreffed, the 
more eafily can the fequel be obferved and 
the failure corredlcd. On fuch an occafion 
the number of the years may undergo a little 
alteration, yet without any change of the 
words. On the other hand where the event 
agrees with the conjedtural determination, it 
amounts to a ftrong confirmation of the whole 
matter, and is of fuch confequence with re- 
gard to the truth of the Gofpel, that even 

264 Conclusion. 

thofe that were formerly fhy and diffident, 
and lookt on at a diftance, will after the 
vidlory put in for a fliare in the booty. 
If an Expcfitor fettles the ternis too pojitive- 
ly\ a failure in any fmall point lays him open 
to the cenfure of raihaefs and prefumption. 
But if having made only a co^jeSlural deter- 
mination of the precife time the event does not 
anfwer; he is not aihamed (much lefs can 
he be faid to be altogether wro^g) but bears 
undefeiTcd reproach with patience, and only 
waits (if men will but let him alone) a little 
longer, as Noah did in the Ark. Now% 

what has any man, either e7ilightenedWith the 
knowledge of the truth, ovfceptic, ov /corner ^ 
to ojbjefttpthis ? And here I once more re- 
feir my reader to §.. xi, of the Preface. 


The Marks and Charaders of a true 

Expojition of the Apocalypfe. 

Our Expolition is all along accompanied 
with its proofs and evidences wherever they 
are required. Yet it will be of ufe to re- 

Part III. 265 

capitulate the principal and plainefl Cha- 
racters of the truth of it (each of them efla- 
blifhed as fuch in the proper places) and to 
bring them into one view, with fome addition. 

I. The true Exposition of the 
Apocalypse (in whatever it may confif!:) 
muft be agreeable to the original text or an 
accurate tranflation of it 3 and in thefe paf- 
fages on which the arguments againft the 
Roman-catholics are grounded, it muft agree 
with the moft approv'd copies, and efpecially 
with the Complutenfian° edition (which by 
the providence of God, was printed in the 
heart of Spain, before the Reformation) as 
alfo with the very antient Vulgate. 

II. It muft adhere to the very turn and 
emphafis of the prophetical words andphrafes, 
which are fometimes figurative, fometimes 

III. It muft begin with fuch obvious re- 
marks as have an evident ground in the text, 

K k 

« Complutumy now called Jcala de Henarez, is an Univer- 
fity in New Caftile, about 20 miles from Madrid, ereded by 
Cardinal Ximenes ; where he finilhed, A°. 1 5 1 5, that fplendid 
edition (the firft of all the Polyglotts) in fix Volumes in Fol. 
The Greek New Teftament had never been printed before. 


and are' not liable to any reafonable doubt ^ 
and from thefe the reft muft be deduced by 
juft confequences. 

IV. It muft fliew the agreement of the 
order of the completion with the 07^der of the 
prophecy from one point to another. 

V. It muft fix the beginning of the com- 
pletion at St. 'Johns days, 

VI. It muft extend the conclufion to the 
end of all things. 

VII. It muft go on through all the ages 
of the world between thefe two boundaries, in 
one continued courfe, without leaving any 
chafms between. 

VIII. The Intervals themfelves of the 
three Woes are parts of this courfe, as refts 
are of a piece of mufic. 

IX. At both thefe Intervals, as well as 
at the Eagle's crying wo^ wo, wo, it muft 
fliew from hlftory the prelude to the enfu- 
ing woes. 

X. It muft make neither too great, nor 
on the other hand too little account of any 
point in hiftory, for example, the reforma- 
tion, the aftions of a King of Sweden (how- 
ever great a man he was) the perfecution in 

Part III. 267 

France, the Saltzburg emigration, or any 
thing elfe that may ftrike us ftrongly becaufe 
of its nearnefs : but take in the Subflance 
both of civil and ecclefiaflical hiftory ; and 
have a regard not fo much to the fingle parts 
as to the whoIc\ in the principal points, prin- 
cipal times, and principal places, fuch as 
Rome and Jerufalem. 

XI. It muft afiign a reafon why the 
fevenfold Song of Praife in C. v. 1 2, has the 
^article, the power, &c. ofily once ^ but in 
that in C. vii. 12, feven times. 

XII. It muft let every thing pafs quickly 
which is not included in limited times. 

XIII. It muft difpofe of the greatejl part 
of the times of the New Teftament in thofe 
periods that are determined, 

XIV. It muft clearly fnew whether, and 
why, this or that period is to be underftood 
in t\\Q prophetical y or in the common meaning. 

XV. It muft difcover xh^ftptenary num- 
ber (of which the book is fo full in other 
things) in the times alfo. 

p It is fo in the original j tho' our Tranflators hav». over- 
looked it in both places. 

2&8 Conclusion. 

XVI. It muft not difregard as ufelefs any 
handle the text offers for the refolution of it- 
felf : and on the other hand muft difcover 
what is fufiicient for that purpofe, in all the 
data therein to be found, taking them all 
together : for example, it muft be able to 
give a reafon why the five months of the 
locufts are fet down twice, 

XVII . In like manner, wliy we find fo 
many periods of time along with the trum- 
pets alone ; but with the churches only one 
of ten days, and with the feals but one, a 

XVIII. And why it is faid, the trumpet 
of the fixth, of the feventh angel, and not 
more briefly the fixth, the (tvcnth trumpet Sec r 

XIX. Also what kind o?thh^dpart is to be 
found under the trumpet of the fifth angel, 
as we find a third part of the earth, &c, un- 
der the trumpets of all they^* other angels. 

XX. And wliat kind of Chronoi thefe are, 
in contradiftindion to which the angel fwore 
it iliould not be a Chronos more to the fulfil- 
ling of the myftery of God. 

"XXL It muft difcern and acknowled2:e 
t%i^o intervals betvv^een the three woes. 

Fart III. 269 

XXII. It mufl fliew a caufe, why, in 
C. xii. 10, it is faid, the power, not the 
kingdom, of his Christ. 

XXIII. And why the half time, tho' con- 
fiderably more than a Century or hundred 
years, is called only half 2, time. 

XXIV. Likewise, why in C. xii, it is 
faid only in the 14th Verfe, but 7iot alfo in 
the 6**'' before the face of the ferpent , 

XXV. Furthermore, why the beaft 
with two horns is called a heajl, only in the 
xiii chapter, and always afterward xho, falfe 

XXVI. In like manner, why the word 
year is left out in C. xiii. 18. 

XXVII. And why at the number of the 
beaft we find, "^ the wifdom, (>i o-o?>j^., y/ith 
the article.) 

XXVIII. It muft fo follow and aeree 
with the pattern given in the phrafes or turns 
of expreffion (for example, a number of a 
man, a meafure of a jnan, that is of an angel) 
that thefe phrafes, which have a reference 
to one another, may be of fervice in the 

•J Omitted by our Tranflators. 

2J0 Conclusion. 

XXIX. It muft point out to us fucli times 
as are near 3 from which it muft draw in- 
ferences, of great ufe now^ tho' not fo ne- 
ceffary for former ages : for this hook of the 
crofs W2is not given us for idle fpeculation. 

XXX. It muft not extend the times of 
the Nev/ Teftament too far: but agree with 
the points fettled in §. xxxi and xxxii. of 
the Introduction. 

XXXL Yet neither muft it fet the ei:K3 
of the world too near after the time of the. 
flying of the angel with the everlafting gof- 
pel or ' geviternal good tidings. 

XXXII. It muft not fearch the prophet- 
ical numbers with a view to fupport any 
proportions oi^Jymmetries of it's dvn devifizg-^ 

'iut attentively obferve thofe that are evident 
iVt, tDe L cxl . 

XXXIII. It muft give a., reafon, why 
there are no times expreffed with the vials. 

XXXIV. Likewise v/hy the word a?igel, 
' is not expreily mentioned at each vial, as it 

is at each trumpet. 

^ .E'viternal is what lafts an JE-vutn or Alon^ viz, .z.iiz\ 


Part III. 271 

XXXV. It muft compare the paflages in 
one of which patience^ in another wifdofn^ 
&c, is required, with one another^ and 
ihew \ht fuitabhmefs of them. 

XXXVI. It muft not overlook the mani- 
feft difference there is between the Beaft and 
the Whore, nor their near relation to one 

XXXVII. It muft give a reafon why the 
two laft of the feven heads of the Beaft are 
called, not the fixth and feventh, but the 
o?2e and the other King. 

XXXVIII. It muft not make any times 
run parallel to one another that cannot con- 
fiftently do fo. For example, the Devil is 
bound ^.t the beginning of the 1000 years,: 
therefore his cafting fome at Smyrna into 
prifon muft be before the 1000 years. The 
abyfs is open when the locufts come out of 
it, and the angel of the abyfs is their leader : 

fo likewife it is to be when the Beaft arifes 
out of it : therefore thefe fame '1000 years 
cannot begin 'till after this arifing. 

XXXIX. It muft alfo be a Key to open the 
times, that wcrcfeard m the prophet Daniel. 

* Viz, of Satan's being bourd and the abyfs Ihut upon him- 


One may obferve more fuch fnarh in the 
Expofition itfelf. Among thofe which 
we have repeated there are fever al that may 
be look'd upon as fomewhat too particular 
v/hich yet in their confequences influence 
the "whole difquifition. No Expofition 

that differs widely from ours can have all 
the now mentioned marks together. But I 
neither can, nor do I defire, to prejudice 
any man in my favour : I only propofe the 
truth according to my abilities. Thefe 

marks may be ufeful to the inquirers after 
truth in feveral ways, for when one takes, 
for example, the forty-two months of the 
Beafl too long or too Jloort, and fets the be- 
ginning or end of them fo much the higher 
or lower in hiftory 3 yet he jiiay hit the mark 
accidentally: and on the contrary, v/hen 
one has got the right length of thefe periods . 
but fets the beginning of them too far back 
or two low down in hiftory ; he may mifs 
his mark mfome meafiire. Yet we mufl not 
for that leave the determination wholly to 
the event; but colledt together from the 
periods and from the marks or charaders of 
the truth, v/hat may amount to a clear 

t^ART III. 273 

j3roof. By thefe marks then our and 

every Expofition befides may and ought to 
h^ JiriBly exajnined. And whoever can io 
improve this prefent Expofition that it may 
agree yet more nicely with thefe marks, will 
deferve thanks for his pains. But let eveiy 
one that has a mind to make any alteration 
in it take care that, while he ftrives to make 
it agree more exactly with fome one mark 
he do not make it run counter as much to 

But befides all thefe marks; when we 
confider the foregoing Expofition, and in 
particular the Table we have given in the 
firft part of this Concluiion ; there prefent 
themfelves to our view fome other circum- 
ftances which may be regarded not indeed 
as neceffary requifites, but however as yery 
fuitable properties, and confequently as an 
Appendix to the marks already given. We 
will go on then in the lift of them. 

XL. In the firft part of this Conclufion 

the Table, which is compleated in the fe- 

cond, ranks its feveral points or articles in 

the fame order one after another as they fol- 

L 1 

274 Conclusion. 

low one another in the texts cited over a- 
gainft them. And if one was to dafh out of 
it all the iiumbers of the years^ yet the feve- 
ral articles will ftand unalterably in their 
places. Neither the beginning or end of 
any one period can be fet higher or lower 
than the beginning or end of any other pe- 
riod as they nov/ ftand : and on the other 
hand this unalterable order of the T^hiJigs 
themfelves is a proof that there cannot be 
any great failure in the determining of the 
Tears paft or to come. Let us confider the 
articles a little more clofely. 

In the Table every period has its proper 
length affigned according to one way of reck- 
cuing either of prophetical or common days, 
months, &c, or v/hich is equal and the fame 
throughout the whole prophecy. The be- 
ginning of each period has a diftinguifhed 
importance in hijlory^ as thofe that are Ikil- 
ful in it m.ay difcern without any view to 
the prophecy. And in the progrefs the pe- 
riods fit into one another in a manner that 
is worthy of our notice : thus. From the 
letter B in the Table to O, it is precifely a 
Chronos or 1 1 1 1^ years : on the other hand 

Part III. 27^ 

'tis not a Chronos (or is a Non-chronos) from 
H to Q, but nearly a Chronos, i. e. lefs 
than iiii-J and more than 1000 years, be- 
tween which two there is no other ftep in 
the Scald Seailorzm, or Scale of ' Ages : a- 
gain from G to Qjthere is, by virtue of the 
Antithefis confiderably more than a Chronos. 
The very middle of each of the calamitous 
periods H, L, M, N, happen one after a- 
nother before the bleffed reformation : 
A\ 800— 1318— 1836 
1058 — 1447— 1836 
1077— 1454— 1836 
In this middle time fell that horrible dark- 
nefs and grofs ignorance both in the eafl and 
v/eft, in the xiv'" and xv'^ Centuries. Now 
when this midnight was over, and by means 
of the reformation it began to dawn, at the 
fame time the period K ended. Hereafter 
there may be an EcHpfe yet, but no more 
any fuch long-lafting Night, and though 
thefe four periods were far diftant in their be- 
ginning, yet they end all together in o?ie great 
and moft defirable point, in the year 1836. 

* Viz, the antient Ages, of 1 1 1~ years each. 

276 Conclusion* 

Thus by the whole Table every article of 
it, and by all ^^ fingle articles and links of 
it the whole compages and coherent chain is 
ftrengthened. It is needlefs to give the proof 
of each feveral article at large : if one was 
to compare every period with every other, it 
would only ferve to make the demonftra- 
tion the more perplexing and difficult by the 
multitude of dedu6lions and conclufions. A 
glance of the eye on the Table will do much 
better. It is here as in the deciphering 
of a writing in a fecret charadler; where 
there is no need of any other proof of your 
having found the true key, than that by it 
you can open and explain the whole. 

But if any Perfon can after all take thisi 
to be a m.ere invention of human {pecula- 
tion; fuch a fceptical difpoiition will for 
ever keep him from receiving any other Ex- 
pofition, however true ^ if a?20ther fuch can 
be. Such a perfon ought to confider that 
God has great patience with him, and fcr 
that reafon to have patience with other men 
who, he may think, come far fhort of him 
in the knowledge of the truth. 

Part III. 277 

XLI. We will alfo bring under examin- 
ation the whole Sum of the apocalyptical 
Chronology, from the beginning of the New 
Teflament to the finifliing of the myftery 
of God. 

Our Lord before his Afcenfion faid to 
all the Jlpojllcs together. It is not for you to 
know the Times or the Seafons (pc^ova? r H^iflou? 
the Chronoi or Kairoi) which the Father has 
put in his own power. Even here our Saviour 
does not abfolutcly rtyV^, but in fad; gives 
an anfwer to the queftion propofed by his 
Apoftles. He does not fay, you mujl not ajk-y 
but, it doth not belong to you ^ in quality of 
Apojiles, to know thcfe times : and what 
did belong to them as fiich he tells them im- 
mediately after, ye fliall be my WitJieJfes. 
Many of the Apoftles or almoft all of them 
\\2L&JiniJ}:ed this their tejiimony, before thefe 
Times or Seafons were revealed to St. John, 
not as to an Apojlle or one fent to declare 
thitjirfl, but as to a Herald extraordinary 
chofen to proclaim the fecond coming of 
Christ. Till then the Father had kept 
them in his own power ; but at that time 
let them be known to his Servants. The 

278 Conclusion. 

Difciples had in a bcdy allied^ Lord wilt thou 
at this time (xf®''^) refiore the kingdom to Ifrael? 
taking the word tijue or Chronos in the com- 
mon meaning : but the Times or Seafons, 
(the Chronoi or Kairoi) which the Lord in 
Iiis anfwer puts together., with an emphati- 
cal diftindion of the words Chronics and 
KairoSy enigmatically import their proper 
length. From the time when the Ar- 

pofdes had borne the teitimony of Christ 
in aIlthe%corld, and particularly in the capital 
Cityy Rome, to the iini(hing of the myftery 
after which they are here inquiring, there 
is one Chronos and over apd above, three 
Kairoi or '^777^ years near about, from the 
year 58 to 18365 which is a Chronos and 
Jhme Kairoi. This joining of the fingular 
i2nd plural together would have look a odd- 
ly : therefore the expreffion is altered ; and 
as in I Sam. :Kxvii. 7, xxix. 3, inflead oi one 
year and four months it is faid thele days or 
thefe years, fo here for a Chj-cnos and fome 
Kuiroi, it is faid, Chronoi or Kairoi. 

XLIL Our fupputation of Time be- 
gins with only refuting the moft prevailing 
error?, and then exhibits a prophetical months 

Part III. 279 

year, day and hour not very plaufible, but 
from whence neverthelefs, as we go on there 
arifeth, as to the periods actually mentioned 
in the text, fometimes a neat rotundity of 
numbers, fometimes a feptenary, and on 
comparing the periods one with another, 
an admirable proportion. 

XLIII. The true Expofition goes in the 
middle-way, not only with regard to the 
computation of the times, but alfo as to the 
JiibjeB-matter. If others interpret too much 
or too little of the text of invifihle or vifMe 
oi pqft or o? future things ; this takes in each 
of them in its proper place. It avoids the 
difficulties and rubs, thofe Opinions are liable 
to, which run out too far on either hand; and 
has the benefit of all the advantages either 
fide has over the other. All that Boffuet 
objefts to or proves againft Jurieu, and on 
the other fide Abbadie againft BoflTuet, and 
whatever elfe pafles between fuch Interpre- 
ters in the way of controverfy, it can lay 
hold of and make to ferve as fo many argu- 
ments for its confirmation and firmer fupport. 

XLIV. In the true Expofition the three 
woes go from eaft to weft in one direft track. 

aSo Conclusion. 

XLV. In general it is adjufted to the 
horizon of the Ifland o? Pafmos all around. 

XLVI. It contains in it the marrow and 
fubjlance of all that holy men in all ages have 
learned out of this Prophecy (as far as they 
went upon folid grounds) amidft fuch a va- 
riety of Interpretations. But of this laft 
point we have fomething farther to fay". 

" Viz, what immediately follows in the iv'*^ part : wherCj 
in §. XLii, N". II, there is fhewed a Ihort method of dif con; er-' 
ing the general plan of a72y Expojltion of the Revelation. 


AN hiftorical account of the various 
Expositions of the Revelation: 
fhewing how in all ages of the New 
Teftament the expectations of all^ but 
efpecially of holy men, have been 
framed mainly with regard to the 
Revelation of Jesus Christ. 
I. All the prophecies of the Old Tefta- 

ment pointed at Jesus Christ either at a 

diftance or nearer at hand. 

Part IV. 2^1 

II. By his coining in the jlejJo the promifes 
thereto relating were fulfilled, and at the fame 
time the longing defires of the Old-Tejiamenf 
Chrijiia?is fatisfied. 

III. In this Completion is immediately 
intermingled, in an admirable manner, the 
further difcovery of things yet to come under 
the New Teftament. Liike i. 32, 33. ii. 34* 
iii. 17. 

IV. When our Lord Jesus Christ had 
brought his firft followers and difciples, and 
efpecially his twelve apoftles, fo far on in 
their knowledgeof himfelf that theyconfefs'd 
him to be the Son of God and the ti'ue 
Messiah; he immediately began to build 
the reft of his dodtrines on this foundation, 
and fhew'd them, now that he had at lafl 
appeared to fave the world, what was farther 
to befall him, and therefore talked with them 
concerning his fufferings, his crofs and death, 
his refurredlion, afcenfion, and coming iri 

V. But a few days before his paflion, he 
alfo foretold to them the deJlruBion of the 
temple and city of Jerufalem ; referring, on 

M m 

282 Conclusion. 

that occafion, to the prophet Daniel. The 
Difciples, and without doubt the Jews in 
general, were of opinion that the Wnple^ the 
city and the wcrld would all come to an end to- 
gether. Matt. xxiv. 3. But our Saviour in- 
formed the difciples that the temple and the 
city were to be deftroyed in the days of that 
prefent generation of men; but that the 
world was not to end at the fame time : and 
on this occafion he inftrufted the believers 
how they wxrc to deport themfelves, even 
with regard to outward circumftances, in the 
diftreifes that were coming, Matt.xxw, 6, 16. 
. VI. Between his refurreftion and afcen- 
fion he gave yet plainer fpecimens of his 
Revelation : as we have before obferved on 
Rev. i. I. and in §. xli. of the preceeding 
Part III. 

VII. After his afcenfion, the two men 
in white apparel teffified to the Apoftles up- 
on the fpot, that jESVsJhotdd come in like 
manner as they had feen him afcend. 
Indeed among fo many momentuous things 
as intervene between his afcenfion to heaven 
and his comings there is no one of equal mo- 
ment with either of thefe : nay they are all 

Part IV. 283 

but fo many preparatory fteps for his Com- 
ing, and from the Revelation they bear to 
that arifeth their importance. 

VIII. Accordingly from that time for- 
ward \k\^expcBations of thtjirjlchrijliaits un- 
der the direcflion of the apoftles, had that 
Comi?7g for its great objedt. Yet thefe, 
contrary to the mind of Christ and his 
Apoftles, reckon'd that coming much too 
early ; which miftake, tho' of no fuch eviV 
tendency as the fcoffing of the men of the 
world, yet proved a hindrance to the truth/ 

IX. Now, as our dear Saviour had inter- 
pofed the deJlriiBion of Jef-ufahn between his 
afceniion and his glorious coming : So the 
Apoftle St. Paul did not look with unconcern 
on the miftake of the Thcffalonians, that 
the day of Christ was at hand and to come 
even before the deftrudion of Jcrufalem; 
but poftpon'd it by an exprefs declaration 
concerning i\\^ApoJlacy that was to come firft, 
concerning the Ma7i of Sin, and him who was 
to withold him or keep him off: And after 
the deftrudion of Jerufalem, the thoiifand 
years and many things hefuies were interpofed 
by St. John in the Revelation. 

.384 Conclusion. 

X. By thefe means was the church of tho 
New Tefcament provided with the needful 
tcftimony concerning future things, from 
the times of the Apoftles to the glorious 
coming of Christ, But the variety 

of interpretations, we feq, began even in 
thofe early days. 


With regard to future things, thefi were 
the th'ee mai?i poiiiU one after another, viz. 
Antichrist, the thousand Years, the 
End of the World. 

On thefe three points and on the rariking of 
the twojirji (for it is evident the third of 
them muft needs be the laft) the reader is 
defired to keep an attentive eye in the rc-^ 
maining part of this difcourfe. 

By the word Antichrist, which in St. 
Johns epijiles has a more extenfive fignifica- 
tion, we mean here^ in conformity to the 
ftyle of the Fathers, the great Adverfai'y^ or 
the Beaft:, who is defcribed in 2 Theffal. ii, 
and in Revel, xiii, &c. 

XII. Men continued to exped the Eiid 
foon, and all that was to come to pafs before 

Part IV, 285 

it, was of courfe, mitraBed within as nar* 
row limits as they thought poffible. 

XIII. We find an inftance of this con- 
tradion in what is called the '" fourth book 
of Ezra. This book (too highly valued by 
fome, but by moft men too much defpifed) 
as we have it at this day (fee Scalig. Exercit. 
308. and J. Gregories Obfei-v. C. xviii.) is 
acknowledged by the learned to have been 
written in the beginning of the fecond Cen- 
tury, and confequently foon after the Reve- 
lation ; fo that the 30''' year after the ruin of 
the City, C. iii. i, muft be meant of the de- 
ftrudion of Jerufalem by the Romans, 
which is A. D. 100 and the 3860'^ year of 
the Jewifh iEra of the World. Now 

when it is faid C. xiv. 11,12, that the du- 
ration of the world is divided into 1 2 parts ^ 
of which 9 ~ are paft and 2 f to come : 
the author added the Jewifh iEra of his 
own time and the apocalyptical 1000 years 
into one fum 4860, of which 9 i twelfdx 
parts are 3847 ;, and the 2 v twelfth 
parts are 10 12 ^ years; fo that 3860 is to 

^ This is called the z^ book; of Efdras, in the Apocrypha, 
in our Englilh Tranflation, 


loc^o, nearly as 9 t to 2 4. On the 

like ground fome among the Greeks have 
reckoned the age of the world to be about 
6500 years, viz, adding the 1000 years to 
their ^ra from the Creation to the birth of 
Christ 5508. 

'^'XiV. The firfl Chriftians unanimoufly fet 
Antichrijlfirjiy and the thotifand years ne:^t. 
Hence it was that when any adveriity or any 
"candal arofe, people faid pfefently this was 
Antichrift, or a prelude to, or the begin- 
iiing, or the forerunner &c, of him. He 
that with-hcld the myflery of Iniquity was 
the Reman Emperor, 2 Theffal. ii. 8. He 
Aood equally in the way of Judaifm and 
Chrlftianity and Antichriftianifm : for tlys 
laft they mrftook for a branch of Chriftianity, 
and that for a fedl of Judaifm. Some of 
them m/ight underftand this perfonaliy of 
the Emperor Claudius (fee Lightfoot's Ckro- 
mc(Ms p- 1^4) ^^ whofe reign St. Paul wrote 
to tiie Theffalonians. When Nerofucceeded 
Claudius and behaved fo wickedly and 
cruellv, they went on in the fame way and 
held him to be that Adverfary. The like 
thoughts were afterward entertained of Do- 

Part IV. - 2S7 

mitian, Aurelius, Severus, Declus, Callus,, 
Volufianus and Gallienus, by the chriflians 
whom they greatly diftreffed. Long after 
Nero^s death a notion prevailed that he would 
come to life again and prove to be the very 

XV. Thus not only the Heretics, but the 
Orthodox alfo in general, fet the thcufand 
years after Antichrift^ and confequently 
far into the latter days^ as it is expreffly al- 
lowed by the learned^ even thofe who them- 
felves think otherwife. Rivetus de Patruin 
Aii^oritatc^ C. vi. obferves that the Fathers 
in Afia, in Gaul, in Africa, at Rome, and in 
other places taught this; and as moft of them 
lived very near the days of the apoftles, they 
recommended this too as an apoftolical tra- 
dition. Dallaeus de vero Ufu Patriim L. 11. 
C. iv. fays of this error, as he calls it, that 
it is a very antient one, and that in former 
times the chriftians in general embraced it; 
and brings this for a proof of it, that the 
whole Greek Church maintains it to this day, 
and of all the great number of thofe who in 
their dodlrines have a regard to the writings 
of th^ fathers, the Lati?Ji alone have departed 

28S Conclusion. 

from it, and that thefe did not avowedly 
eftablifh the contrary opinion 'till K", 1439 
in the council at Florence. Heidegger 
avers that in Juftin Martyr^s days the whole 
Chriftian Church owned it. Diflert. Tom. 1* 
p. 653, &c. and p. 649 : and indeed Juftin 
hlmfelfhas affured us of it as to all the Or- 
tliodox in his time in general. See alfo 
Vitringa in Apocal. p. 845 &c : and Poireti 
Fofibuma. p. 643 : where they both without 
ceremony, appeal to the antient Jewijh 
Church: and likewifejoach. Langius's GAr/^ 
Chrip, Tom. I. fol. 270. So then it 

does not depend on Papias alone ^ whotn 
people generally decry, without regarding 
what the antients fay to his praife, 

XVI. Under thefe crofes the faithful 
comforted themfelves with hope in the great 
promifes. It may be that fomething hetero- 
dox and carnal was fuperadded to them* 
Yet we find no controverfy or difpute on that 
head 'till the middle of the third century 5 
and then, on account of thefe bad additions 
there arofe gradually an mdifcreet averfion to 
the thing itfelf, nay even to the whole Pro- 

Part IV; 289 

XVII. Some however perfever'd in the 
ftudy of this prophetical word; but even 
thefe very early loft fight of the proper 
length of the thoufand years. And dien 
feveral prejudicate opinions concurred to 
miflead themi 1. In conformity to the 
feptuagint tranilation they greatly enlarged 
the times of the Old Teftament. 2. They 
received the jewifli tradition which co?2fraBs 
the whole duration of the world to 6000 
years. 3 . They had alfo a notion that the 
6000 years, though already near run out, 
fhould yet be fhortened toward the end. 
4. They took the fmall part, as they rec- 
koned, that yet remained of the fixth Mil- 
lenary for the whole Millenium or 1000, 
years, hy fymecdoche, 5. They took the 

whole time of the New Teftament to confift 
of no more than 365 years, being as it were 
the days of that year of grace or acceptance, 
Ifaiah Ixi. 2. 6. They began the 1000 
years from the vtry Jirji times of the New 
Teftament. Such opinions brought the 

laft day much nearer than was agreeable to 
truth : which Joh. Melchioris, with good 
N n 

290 Con GL¥ SIGN. 

reafon, looks upon as one caufe why many 
omitted to record the church-hiftory of thofe 



Wh e n, through Conftantine the Great, 
Chriftianity got the upper-hand in the world, 
the hope of future things decayed greatly 
by their being fatisfied with the prefent. At 
the council of Nice, however, there were 
yet many remaining who had gone through 
great fufferings for the name of Christ,, 
and what notion that great aflembly heM 
concerning the kingdom of the faints of the 
mofi Wgh, may be feen in Gelas. Cizicen. 
A61. Cone. Nic. c. 30. Yet the dread of ^7^'- 
tichriji, tho' men were every now and then 
put in mind of him by the Arian calamities, 
went off by degrees, and the thouf and years 
were by little and little given up -, paulatim^ 
fays Eftius; by which expreffion he indirect- 
ly contradicts thofe who fay that in the fynod 
at Rome under Damafiis againft Apollinaris 
the noify herefy of the Chiliafts (as Baronius 
exultingly fays) had its mouth flopped. A- 
greeable to this is what we mentioned on 
,C. xi. 2, viz, That Jerufalem which had 

Part IV, 291 

fceen trodden under foot by the Gentiles, 
made fo fplendid an appearance under Con- 
ftantine that Eufebius was ready to take it 
for the new Jerufalem. At Conftantinople" 
particularly the Revelation was very little 
regarded : for among many Fathers who 
lived in that neighbourhood there is not to 
be found fo much as one citation from that 

XIX. Some began the 1000 years(whether 
precifely that number or more or lefs) at the 
birth of Christ: others at his paffion. 
CaiTiodorus, in Complexiombus expreffes this 
plainly : Alligavitque eum &ccJ i. e. ' And 
* bound him a thoufajid years ^ Rev. xx. 2. 
^ (This, fays he, is a Synecdoche by which 
•* the whole is put for the part : for the e?2d 
' of them is entirely unknown to us, but the 
' heginnvig of them is by common conjhit of 
' the fathers placed at tk^ birth of our Lord); 

" Which was then die feat of the Emperors, and the fcene 
of worldly eafe, pleafure and profperity. 

y Alligavitque eum mille c.nnis (quod per figuram fynec- 
-doche a parte totum dicitur, quando ejus finis omnimodisha- 
betur incognitus, qui tamen confenfu patrum a nati'vitate do- 
mini com put ant ur) ne credituras gentes libera poteftateconfun- 
deret. In fine vero fecuH dicit eum ciTc folvendum, quando 
multi martyrfis k confeiTores i-:nicr.te aniidrifio gcrminabunUt 

292 Conclusion. 

' that he might not, if he had had the free 
' ufe of his power, confound the Gentiles 
^ that were to receive the gofpel. But he 
' tells us that toward the end of the "world he 
^ fhall be loofed, and then there fnall fpring 
' up many martyrs and confelTors on the com- 

* ing of Antichrijl! The fame doftrine was 
taught by St. Auguftine (whofe credit was 
fufficient to draw in all the middle ages into 
this opinion) j by Primafius (who alfo rec- 
koned the 3 \ times as going on along with 
the 1000 years, from the beginning of the 
New Teflament to the end of the world) 
and among the Greeks by Andreas Ccefarien- 
fis, who on this occafion lays more ftrefs on 
the date of the pafjioii of Christ. Scipio 
MafFei makes the following remark on the 
above cited words of CafTiodorus; "" ^tod 

fiibditiir &c. i. e. what he adds, viz. ' th^t 
^ in the opinion of many of the Fathers this 
' fpace is to be reckoned from the nativity of 
' our Lord, feems to refer to an opinion 
^ held by 7?2a?2y in former times that \ooo years 

^ Quod fubditur, fpatium hoc muhorum patrum fententia a 
fiati'vitate Z)owzW computari, ad opinionem multis ohm fub- 
ortam videtur referri> millejimo pofi Chrijium anno rerum univer- 

• fitatem diflblutum iri & Antichrijium adventurum. 

Part IV. 293 

* after Christ the world lliould be dilTolv'd, 
' and Antichrift fhould come/ Thus the 
ORDER w^5 INVERTED, '3.Vidi\}i\^thouf and years 
thus fliortned, ktforemoji ^indAntichriJi (who 
delay'd fo long) was put after them and a 
little before the e?2d of the world, T^hey took 
it for granted that the thoufand years were 
actually in courfe; and the coming of An- 
tichrift, together with the end of the world, 
had always been lookt upon as near. Of this 
opinion were Laftantius, Jerom, the author 
of the Opus imperf in Matth. homil. 49, 
Gregory the Great, and others. But as the 
iEra increafed without any confiderable re- 
volution, men began again to allow the pro- 
per meaning of the thoufand years to take 
place at the end of which Antichrift fliould 

XX. Here indeed was a miftake, that 
they wrefted that 1000 years in the xx''' 
Ch. of the Revelation to this purpofe : but it 
happened luckily that they fixed upon fome- 
thing that chanced to be right in the main 
(but fiewn to be fo by other arguments) 
namely 1000 vears, ?2ea7'h\ from the firft 

294 Conclusion. 

itimes of the New Teftanient to the reign of 

the Beaft. 


Thus matters went on till die number of 
.years came to be acilually looo ; ten Cen- 
turies being fpent. * At the beginning 
' of the eleventh Century there were fome 

* (as Baronius informs us) who taught that 
< the time was at hand when the Man of 
j Sin, the Son of Perdition, the Antichrift 

* fo called, fliould be revealed: and this 
' was publickly declared in France (firft of 

* all at Paris) fpread abroad in the World, 

* and believed by great Numbers/ Now as 
people expected the lail day at the fame 
time, thev let the Churches and Monafteries 
go to ruin, many Princes and Lords travell'd 
to Rome, and many built Hofpitals for the 
Sick and for Pilgrims, and even Abbies, 
into which fome of them retired to wait for 
that day. Fleury's Marnier s of the ChrifiianSy 
Dr. Emiliane's Cheats of the Friep : T. i. 
p, 130 &c. 

XXIL Men were greatly forwarded and 
confirmed in this anxious expedlation of 
Antichrift, by reflecting on what paffed in 

Part IV. 29^ 

the See of Rome. In the year 1000 after 
the pajjion of Christ BenediB IX'\ was 
Bifhop of Rome from A\ 1032 to 1045: 
and in all appearance it was on account of 
l^\s>fcandaIous youngfler that the Greeks looku 
for the number of the Beaft in this name 
BENEAIKTOS, which in Greek comes pre- 
cifely to 666. (Compare here the Gnomon 
on Rev. xiii. 18. §. xii.) A plain mark of 
this is to be {ttw in the copies of Andreas 
Caefarienfis ;* in which the name Bene^didius 
is foifted in by the Tranfcribers, and like- 
wife the rubrick or lemma concerning the 
1000 years which where before reckoned 
by him from the Birth of Christ (as may 
ftill be feen in Arethas^) was adjufled to his 
pajjioiiy that it might agree with the time of 
this Benedift. However all that hap- 

pened under him was at mojl but a prelude 
to the reign of the Beaft. 

* A Cappadocian Bifhop, who wrote a Commentary oa 
the Revelation more than 500 years before the time when 
Bencdift was Bilhop of Rome. 

* The SucceiTor of Andreas, who about 40 yean after^ 
abridged or made cxtra^s from Andrews's Comment. 

zg6 Conclusion. 

At lafl came Hildebrand. By his 

decrees and exorbitant aBmis many began to 
fee, after fo many warnings, whereabouts 
tliey were. What people in thofe days 
thought of the matter may be found in ma- 
ny writers. But Aventinus has comprifed 
the whole in that v/ell-known and impor- 
tant pafTage: Pleriqtie omnes boni &c\ ' that 
' is almoft all good, open-hearted, juft, can- 
' did and undefigning men have left it on 
' record that the Reign of Antichrist 


they diftinguiflied between the Reign of tke 
Beajl and Antichrijl himjelf is not eafy to 

XXIV. All the horrible things which 
we read of this Gregory VIP'', are out-done 
by what Cardinal Benno/>?/^///27^<^ concerning 
him at that very time. Many, even amongft 
Proteftants, will not believe him, becaufe 
he was an enemy to Gregory. But we are 
not fo much to mind in fuch a cafe whether 
one is a friend or an enemy, as whether he 

*= Plerique omnes boni, aperti, jufti, ingenui, fimplices, turn 
imperium AntichrilU CcepiiTe memorije literarum prodidere. 

Part IV. 297 

be a confclentious or, at leaf!:, an honeft' 
man. Virrue gams the love of men 3 and 
vice our hatred : and love and hatred are 
the motives that firft impel many a man to 
difcover the truth of things either very bad 
or very good, which otherwife he would 
have kept to himfelf and concealed from o- 
thers. Benno too reckoned 1000 years from 
the beginning of the New Teftament to the 
reign of Antichrift : and this may be one 
of the reafons he had for not fparing Hil- 


XXV. When the difturbances raifed by 
Hildebrand were over, fome who had not 
{t^n the whole of thefe horrible doings con- 
tinued ftill in expecSlation 5 which as to the 
very Antichrift was too early, and as to the 
reign of the beaft was too late. Fluentius 
Biftiop of Florence gave out, on the appear- 
ance of a very great 'Comet, that Antichrift 
was born : on which account Pope Pafcal 
IP. went thither and in a Council of 340 
O o 

* The fame, as Aflronomers reckon, that appeared again 
A°. 1680, and is predided to return A°. 2255, its period 
being computed to be 575 years. 

298 Conclusion. 

Bifhops (fays Bellarmine) impofed lilence 
upon him A°* 1105. At this rate the 
birth of Christ and that of his Adverfary 
would have had a refemblance as to the 
Star and the ecclefiaflical affembly, Matth» 
ii. 2. 4. What attentive obfervation mull 
this have occafioned both at Florence and at 
a diftance ! Pity that there remain no fuller 
accounts of it. About the fame year 

Norbertus affured Bernard that Antichrift 
would be revealed during that prefent gene- 
ration, and that he himfelf fhould live to 
fee a general perfecution of the church. (See 
Bernard's 56 Epiftle.) He died A^- 1134. 
Bernard himfelf fays [Serm. 6. i?i Pfalm xci.) 
Superejiy lit revektur homo peceati -^ i. e. ' All^ 

* that remains now is that the man of fin 

* be revealed.* Many others fpeak to the 
fame purpofe. 

XXVI. The farther the iEra increafed, 
men found it the more convenient to lengthen 
the prophetical times in their Interpretations • 
About the year 1200 flourifhed the Abbot 
Joachim ; and as the ^ra was now not far 
from being equal to the number 126a, viz^. 
of the apocalyptical days of the Woman, he 

Part IV. 299 

and many others with him conjedured that 
great changes were drawing near. (V, J. A. 
SchmidnDifs, hijior, dePfeudo-evangelio ccte?^^ 
720 feciili XIII. §. VIII.) In the very year 
1260 his Dodlrine was condemned by a 
Council at Aries. He maintained partly a?i 
Error, that we fhould take the 1260 days 
for fo many years and in general an apocalyp- 
tical day for a year ; and partly the truths 
namely that \h^JlouriJhing times of the church 
(we don't enquire as yet how they defcribed 
them) and confequently the 1000 years, 
muft come after the deftruftion of the An- 

XXVIL Others were aware that the 
calamities had begun fome time before : for 
example, the unknown author who wrote 
concerning Antichrift, A"*' J120, cited by 
Vitringa in ApocaL p. 747. And as the 
Witneffes of the truth had {2ii& fo7y?2erly that 
Antichrift was to come ; they faid 720W at laft 
that he ixjm come, and that with a remark- 
able unanimity and conftancy in that main 
point. Confider the teftimonies according 
to the order of time, in feveral writers and 
particularly inGerhardi Confeff, CathoL L. ir. 

300 Conclusion. 

Art. 3. Chap. 6. Fol. 581. — 595. — 626: 
and take notice how they fpeak of him ei- 
ther as a calamity yet to come^ or ad:ually 

XXVIII. The dark night was now fully 
come on, and conliderate people began to re- 
flect and bethink themfelves by what time the 
day might break. Here again one term after 
another was pitched upon. The antient 
^ Techonius had reckoned the 3 i times to be 
3 f centuries, or 350 years (as the Jews did, 
in Juftin's dialogue with Tryphon)^ and 
That the Waldenfes interpreted in their own 
favour, and conceived hopes that in 350 
years from the beginning of thofe miferable 
times there would be better days: Vitringa 
in Apoc. p. 464. From the Waldenfes 
the Wiclilites and Huffites took this inter- 
pretation: for T. Purvasus, an Englifliman, 
A°' 1390 compofed out of the ledlures of 
his mafter, Wiclif, then in prifon, an Ex- 
pofition of the Revelation, in which he rec- 
kons the 1000 years from the paffion of 
Christ to the year 1033, ^^^ ^^^^ thence 

« Who wrote A"* 390 about a thoufand years before Wic- 
Jif s days. 

Part IV. 301 

^o A"** 1383 he affigns 350 years to Anti- 
chrift. That Wiclif himfelf was of this 
opinion appears from the 8^'' Se-lion of the 
Council of Conftance, where the 9'^ Article 
he is charged with is this : Pojl JJrbanum 
VI. ^&c. i. e. ' After Urban the VI"' there 
' is no Pope to be owned ; but we muft be 

* governed, as the Greeks are, by laws of 

* our own making.' The year 1383 fell 
in the reign of this Urban. Rieger, in his 
hiftory of the Bohemian Brethren, §. 412, 
treats of the dodrine of the HufTites : and 
Byzynii^s, there cited mentions that about 
the year 1420 many in Bohemia were mif- 
led (through an opinion that the kingdom 
of Christ was in a little while to be 
fet up and vengeance poured out upon the 
Enemies) to fell their goods even at a low- 
price, to betake themfelves with their wives 
and children to the ^ Taborites and to lay 

*■ Poft Urbanum vi. non eft aliquis recipiendus in Papam, 
fed vivendum eft more Graecorum fub legibus proprijs. 

s Thefe were a Branch of the Huflites who had. a Caftle 
near the fmall City called Tabor not far from Prague, by 
means of which they ftood out agamft the Emperor Sigifmund 
and Pope Martin V''^ Crufade : and their Caftle was not taken 
till A°. 1544. 

noi Conclusion. 

their money at the feet of the priefts, in or- 
der to introduce a community of goods: but 
that from thence there quickly enfued great 
fcarcity and diforder, and time alone foon 
confuted that error. 

XXIX. In the middle ages, when the 
Perfians under Chofroes, and after them the 
Saracens, but efpecially the Turks, became 
fo powerful and got pofTeffion of the holy 
grave, the holy city Jerufalem, and the pro- 
mifed land, many Expofitors interpreted the 
Revelation of thofe tranfadions. For when 
Jerufalem was recovered in the firft Crufadc 
and loft in the fecond (which was zealoufly 
promoted by Bernard who thought that was 
the time the fulnefs of the Gentiles was to 
come in, and all Ifrael to be faved) and the 
third came to nothing; in the year 12 13 
Pope Innocent III. fent out circular letters 
to all faithful Chriftians pro fubfidio terra 
fanBde, for the relief or recovery of the holy 
land, in hopes that they ihould be more 
fuccefsful now that the 666 years from Ma- 
homet were near run out. After this 
Petrus Aureolus, Nicholas Lyranus, Anto- 
ninus Florentinus &c, interpreted each in his 

Part VI. 303 

Own way the 666 years and fever al other paf- 
fages in the Revelation of Mahomet -, to which 
purpofe alfo many even fince the reforma- 
tion, efpecially among the Roman Catholicks 
wreft fiich texts. When befides all 

this the Ottoman Port was eftablifhed about 
the beginning of the XIV'^ Century, Expo- 
fitors of this fort took up a fancy that this 
was the timein which Satan was loofed (how- 
ever, people had an eye at the fame time, to 
the abominations of Popery) and fo reckoned 
1000 years backward looking for thebegin- 
ing of them in Conftantine's time. Fox, 
Gerhard and Hoe cite Gualterus Brutus, 
Ubertinus de Cafalis, Ferdinandus del Caf- 
tillo and Jacobus de Teramo as of this opi- 
nion, which chiefly Brightman among the 
moderns has advanced. Others begin 

the 1000 years with Calixtus II, who muft 
needs be the Angel, and the Emperor the 
Dragon whom he bound by wrefting from 
him the right of Inveftitures A°- 1122, 112 3: 
others with Innocent IIP, who eftablifh'd 
the Orders of the Dominicans and Fran- 
cifcans A""* 1215. Thus was the 

3^4 Conclusion. 

confufion of the times of the Beaft and of the 
I GOO years brought to the utmoft height: 
however thereby a way was opened for fet- 
ting them again in their right order, viz, the 
times of the Beaft firft, and the i ooo years 
after, and from hence Joannes Viterbienlis, 
A°' 148 1, gave Sixtus IV great hopes of vic- 
tory over the Turks (whom he took for the 
Beaft, as Innocent before did the Saracens). 
and_of the 1000 years. See Seb. Meyer in 
ApocalfoL 80. 

With the Reformation there iprung 
up a new hght in prophetical as well as other 
matters ; and Luther found the Hildebrandine 
papacy emblematically reprefented inCh.xiii. 
of the Revelation. At the fame time he 
could not be unacquainted with the above- 
mentioned ^ 350 years, fmce he had caufed 
the faid book of Purv^eus to be printed, with 
a preface of his ow^n, at Wittenberg, A°* 
1528: but he faw they were manifeftly too 
fhort, and therefore laid hold on fomething 
that was righter, namely the 666 years^ 
He was fatisfied that the xiii'^ Ch. of the 

*> In the beginning of §. xxviii. 

Part IV. 305 

Revelation has no view to the Turk, but to 
the Pope 5 and in confequence of that, in his 
marginal notes expounds the 666 years of 
the duration of the worldly papacy. Bibli- 
ander was alfo one of the firft who acknow- 
ledged this 5 and among the reformed in 
France Jac. Capellus, and in England Tho- 
mas Lydyat did the fame. How Sera- 
phinus de Fermo and others bufied them- 
felves from that time to wreft fometimes one 
fometimes another pafTage of the Revelation 
that contained a defcription of any horrible 
thing, to apply it to Luther and the Refor- 
mation, is not worth mentioning. But Lu- 
ther's Expoiition ought in reafon to be look'd 
upon as a coniiderable part of this whole 
teftimony; tho* veiy few, even in the pro- 
teftant church, have hitherto duly regarded 
it. He held that Antichrift was now plainly 
revealed, and agreed with Lucas Brugenfis 
and others who reckon 6000 years to be 
the whole time that the world is to lafl. 
Hence he concluded that the lafl: day was 
not far off, and fo there was not fufficient 
fpace remaining for the 1000 years to couie > 


3o6 Conclusion. 

for which reafon he could not reckon them 
more conveniently than from the beginning 
of the New Teftament to Gregory VII. 
This appears from his Stipputatio^ or reckon- 
ing of the years of the world, publiihed not 
long before his Death. Befides, in his 

preface to the Revelation and his notes on it, 
there are contain'd the following Positions. 
I. Thtjlrji wo is great; the fecond greater ; 
the third the greateft of all. 2. The^^- 

cond ICO began in the feventh Century, in the 
Saracen hiftory. 3. The third wo in C. 

xiii, is the worldly papacy. 4. This be- 

ean in Hilde brand, c. It will laft 666 

years. 6. The third wo and the kytn 

vials are under the trumpet of the feventh 
angel. 7. The third wo will be checked 

by the vials. 8. The 1000 years are, in 

the proper fenfe, 1000 years. 9. The 

1000 years and the times of the Beaft can- 
not coincide for ever fo fhort a time. Other 
Expoiitors have maintained fome one, and 
fome another of thefe Pofitions feverally : but 
Luther (and to the beft of my knowledge, 
he alone to this day) grafped all of them to- 
gether in his comprehenfwe knowledge, tho' 

Part IV. 307 

fo long ago. Now let us add to thefe, 
one poiition more (which in no wife dif- 
agrees with the former nine, but is rather a 
confequence of them, and is maintained by 
Luther's fellow-labourer Francis Lambert in 
his Exeg. Apcc, p. 233, 286) namely this, 
10. That the times of the Beaft go before 
and the 1000 years follow after; and then 
we have all the grounds of a true Expojition. 

XXXL Andrew Osiander the elder 
went another way to work. He fought for 
the number of the Beaft in the hebrew word 
n"'^t2in, (Rumiit) and at the fame time gave 
occafion to people's gradually quitting the 
number 666 in reckoning the duration of 
the Beaft, and efpoufing that of 1 260. Ex- 
amine his ConjeB, de ultimis tempor. & fine 
jmmdiy publifhed at Nuremberg, A°* 1544; 
and his fon-in-law Funckius's Illuftration of 
the Revelation, p. 162, 203, 365 of the edi--^ 
tion of 1596. Some fuppofe both the 

numbers,* 666 and 1260, to run on parallel, 
and affign the latter to the duration of the 
fpiritual, and the former to that of the 
worldly power of the Beaft ; as the Centuri- 
atcrs of Magdeburg, the Syntagma N. T. 

3o8 Conclusion. 

(which has great affinity to their work) Jo. 
Balasus, Raph. Eglinus, Zach. Muthefius, 
Melch. Kromayer, and others. But the 
well-grounded 666 years were overborne 
by the ill-grounded 1260 years, by n^'^tsi'n, 
and by other fuch names, efpecially in Flacii 
Glojfa and other Expofitions that had a great 
run. Bellarmine, and fuch as he, were not 
foriy for this : but many proteftants have 
ftuck to this period of 1260 years, in their 
controverfial writings and their Expofitions, 
as Hoe, PariEus, Gerhard, Cluver, Cravius, 
Cocceius, &c. 

XXXII. Now this Year-day^ has had 
many troublefome confequences : ( i ) When 
the 666 years were little minded, the Hilde- 
brandine-period, which had formerly been 
look'd upon by all confiderate perfons as fo 
important, came to be forgotten, or at moft 
made but a part of the papal period. They 
were unwilling to begin their 1260 years at 
Gregory VII, or lower dov/n ; for that would 
have made the time too long for them that 
thought the final ruin of Antichrift and the 

M. e. the taking each of the 1260 days in the Prophecy to 
fignify a year. 

Part IV. 309 

laft day were very near; and the time of 
their waiting for thefe future things would 
have been too much extended, delay'd and 
rendered uncertain : fo they muft needs be- 
gin higher, and thereby left too little ropm 
for thofe things which, in the prophecy, pre- 
ceeded the rifing of the Beaft. Many alfo 
of their predidlions failed one after another, 
efpecially in the time of the perfecution of the 
reformed in France, which made fport for 
their adverfaries. (2) Thus the length 

of this period of 1260 years, when it pre- 
vailed, obliging them to fet the beginning 
of the times of the Beaft too high in hiftory, 
for example A°* 257, 450, 600, 800, (a 
wide difference !) put a ftop to all comparing 
of the prophecy and hiftory : and many had 
the affurance to reckon among the of 
Antichrift the holy Bifhops of the antient 
church of Rome, the latchet of whofe fioes 
(fays Petrus Crugotius) they were not ivorthy 
to unloofe. (3) Efpecially, the teftimony 
of the truth againft Popery, in fo far as it is 
grounded on this Prophecy, was greatly im- 
peded. (4) No room could be found 
for the 1000 vears : fo, whereas ail the an- 

3IO Conclusion. 

tients had placed them either wholly after or 
wholly before the times of the Beaft, now 
men came to allow fome part of the looo 
years, or the whole of them, to run parallel 
with fome pai't of the 1260 years. Nay 
fome begin both the 1260 years of mifery 
and the looo years of happinefs together, at 
Conftantine the Great, as Napier 3 or both 
together about the timeof Charles theCreat, 
as Matth. Hoffman : the former of whom 
is nearly foUow'd by B. P. Carl, and the 
latter by Cafp. Heunifchius. 

XXXIII. The Anabaptiftical, premature 
and frantick notions of the Millennium (a- 
gainli which the confeffion of Aufburg bears 
a proper teftimony) greatly contributed to 
bring in anew, among fome men, a great 
indifference about the Revelation, and a- 
mong ?nany about the 1000 years, efpecially 
as they thought thempa/l long ago. If any 
one but gave a hint of 1000 years yet fo 
come, he was fufpe6ted; and thofe were com- 
mended who thought themfelves not bound 
to make open confeffion of them. Thefe 
therefore took up the thing fo much the more 
warmly, and found means to make the very 

Part IV. 311 

namcof theMillcnniumor 1000 years odious. 
See Crameri arbor hceret. confangidn, p. 76. 
Yet in the year 1554 at Balle fome learned 
Refugees bore noble teftimony to the 1 000 
years to follow after the overthrow of Anti- 
chrifl 3 fuch as Sebaft. Caftellio in the pre- 
face to his tranflation of the Bible, and Mar- 
tin Borrhaus on the xx^*" chap, of the Reve- 
lation (tho* thefe two had had difputes upon 
other points); like wife Coelius Secundus 
Curio in his Book de amplitudine regjii Deiy 
and Alphonfus Conradus Mantuanus in 

XXXIV. There had been a long time 
an expedation that in the year 1588 the 
world would come to an end, or at leafl 
there would be very great revolutions in it. 
Jo. Guil. Stuckius publiflied a particular 
treatife on that fubjedt, at Zurich, that very 
year 1588. Take the fubftance of what is 
faid by J. J. Hojffman hijl, pap, ad A, 12 19, 
Flacius cataL tefi, verit. §. 173, Gerhard. 
he, de extr.jud. §. 78, and Conrad. Brufs- 
ken's appendix to Beverley's chronology; 
and we fhall find as follows, viz, antiently 
people added to the rife of Mahomet the 

312 Conclusion. 

number of the Beaft, and becaufe of the 
fum of thefe two, 622 and 666, were intent 
upon obferving the year 1288. About 
tliat time the Chriftians loll what they had 
'till then kept poffeiTion . of in Syria; and 
men deceived themfelves with this prognof- 
tic, ^'^ mimdo in cc/itum annisy i. e. wo to 
the world within thefe ico years 3 and fo 
made a miftake alfo about the greateft and 
laft antichriftian calamities, which they 
thought would come to an end A°* 1388. 
When nothing happened that year, they 
added another and then another 100, and 
fo brought it to 1488 and 1588; and made 
alfo aftrological calculations of them. At laft 
they left off this way and no longer added 
the 666 years to Mahomet's times, but to 
the year 1032, to v/hich they reckoned 1000 
years from the pajfion of Christ. On this 
ground tliey were willing to fuppofe that in 
the year 1698 there would follow the de- 
ftrudtion of the Turk and Popery, and the 
fpreading of Chriftianity over all the world, 
Lambertus Danceus inverts this order, rec- 
koning the 666 years from the paffion, and 
then adding the 1000 years; de Antich, p. 

Part IV. 313 

98. 108. compare with this Dudleij Fenneri 
T^hcologia^ p. 172. Edit. A°' 1589. Others 
reckoned from the birth of Christ : whe- 
ther they put the 1000 years firft or laft it 
matters not; but a great expectation there 
was againft the year 1666, the treatife cal- 
led Romcs RuinaJiJialis goes altogether upon 
this fcheme, which gave a handle to Spize- 
lius and Artopoeus for further reflexions. 

XXXV. By fearching the Scriptures men 
are 7iow again come near to the ancient truth. 
In the beginning of the laft century J. Pif- 
cator, and others, put the reign of the Beaft 
and Antichrift before the 1000 Years, and 
aver'd that all is not yet fulfilled that is fore- 
told to come before the end of all things. 
In like manner Dan. CrameruSj in his Bible 
with Notes, acknowledgeth that the 1000 
years in C. xx. 2. do not begin till after the 
Hallelujah and after the Vicflory in C. xixi 
I, 1 1, but he interpreted them of the peace 
of the church &c, (much in the fame way 
as Cotterius, Zeltnerus and Mommers) and 
befides, as he held the end of the world to 
be very near, he extends the 1000 years to 

314 Conclusion. 

fcarcely more than the age of a man; in 
which Franc. Lambertus went before him, 
and Zach. Hogelius, Joh. Schindlerus, Nic. 
Mulerius, Joh. Brunfmannus and Melch. 
Kromayer differ but httle from him. The 
more conftrain'd this Interpretation is, the 
more clearly it fhews that thefe Expofitors 
were fenfible of the connexion between the 
xix'^ and the xx''' Chapter. 

XXXVI. Afterward many were roufed 
anew to a diligent inquiry into this point by 
means of Cocceius : however, they fuifer'd 
themfelves to be milled, by their feveral 
^ ptTiods or ages of the churchy into many oin- 
profitable extravagancies. 

A WIDE Door was opened by the worthy 
Spencr^ w^ho brought again into view the 
hope J as he and others called it, of better times % 
and who carefully avoided all meddling with 
particulars, (as was very fuitable to this new 
beginning) but maintained his main point 
with great ferioufnefs and fteadinefs, and 
with full affurance, to his death. Ever 

^ See the Introdudion, §. xiii : andN^.iii of §- xxxviii 
of this part of the Conclufion. 

Part IV. 315 

fince tlien the truth, in this point, has been 
making its way more and more powerfully, 
tho' incompafied with many errors. 

XXXVIII. The writers who now meet 
with the moil general approbation are of 
three Sorts. i. Some interpret almoft 

every thing of the judgments upon the Jews, 
or on them and the Heathen alfo, early in 
the beginning of the New Teftament ; and 
reckon the 1000 years from the afcenfion 
of Christ, or from Conftantine the Great. 
Such is the opinion of Grotius, Hammond 
and the Author of the Frcenotiones apocalyp- 
ticcc^ i^c. Here the times are taken always 
in the common acceptation. Boffuet takes 
this way of reckoning for granted, and be- 
fides he places Antichrifl only a fliort time 
before the end of the world. 2. Others 

ftill abide by the year-day and the period of 
1260 years : and thofe of them who place 
the Beaft before the 1000 years affign very 
different terms when the one lliould end 
and the other begin. Jofeph Mede was 
one of the principal abettors of the period of 
1260 years, and was followed by Henry 
More, Peganlus, Jurieu and others. To 

3i6 Conclusion. 

this clafs belong Newton, Sandhagen, Du- 
rer, Schweitzer, Zeltner, Samuel Konig, 
Scheurman, Abbadic, Crinfon, Drieilen, 
Malfchius, Kohlreiffius, Stockius, &c, tho' 
as to the looo years they differ widely from 
one another. 3. Many labour to fill 

up the whole ipace from St. John to us with 
only the feven Churches, or the figurative 
interpretation of them, and maintain that 
almoft every thing from the hrfl feal to the 
1000 years is yet to come ; and fo they too 
take the times in the ccmmon acceptation . 
See §. vij VII. of the Preface, and Hedin- 
ger's preface to the Revelation in his Nev/ 
Tejftament with Notes, 

XXXIX. It is ?20t to be 'wondered at that 
amidft fo many difficulties, and after fo many 
terms afligned that have paifed without ef- 
fedt, many men of underftanding have in a 
manner given up all fludy of the Revelation 
and confin'd all their reliedions on it to fome 
general and v/ell-know^n heads of docflrine 
viz, that the Church fliall be always frrait- 
ned but never fhall be crufli'd ; and have 
brought the reckoning of times almoil into 
difufe. Markius's Commentary on the Apo- 

Part IV. 317 

calypfe may ferve for an example of this ; 
for he there fkilfully confutes many wrong 
opinions, but as above-mentioned on C. vi. 
8. rarely advances any thing himfelf. 

XL. Nobody fo far as I know, has hit 
the mark, in thofe points that are the moft 
necefTary for the prefent time^ more nearly 
than Campegius Vitringa. He has gone 
back to Gregory VII. (asNic. Mulerius had 
alio done) and has difcovered and demon- 
ftrated the agreement of the prophecy and the 
completion in xh^faBs themfelves, without 
helps from the calculation of the ti772cs, for 
he had a miilruft of the year-day, and yet 
did not for that depend upon the CGmmon 
day. By this he has given a notable blow 
to both thofe erro?ieous reckojiwgs, and has 
not fallen much fliort of the true, which 
goes in the middle way between them. See 
his Afiacrifs apocal p. 460 &c. In this 
path he leads his reader through the rage of 
the enemies and the overthrow of them, di- 
red:ly to the contents of the xx'^ chapter. 

XLI. Thus the true and ancient order is 
reftored: viz. Antichrist, the Thou- 
sand Years, the End of the World. 

3iS Conclusion. 

This may ferve for a brief History of 
the ExPosiTio;^^s of this Prophecy, accord- 
ing to ^€vl principal variations', from whence 
many advantages may accrew to thofe who 
deiire to profit by it. I. Vv'e may fee how 

amidft this ftrange and manifold variety of 
opinions the progrefs of the truth has been re- 
tarded through the juflling of fo many errors; 
and yet glimpfes of it have been feen in all 
Ages, and it has made its way through them. 
IL Let any one, antient or modern Expoii- 
tor of the Revelation fall into a man's hands; 
he needs only to look how he explains the 
forty two months of the Beaft, the 7mmher of 
theBeaft, z.vA\h.^thoiifand years: and thereby 
he will prefently fee what grounds he goes 
upon, and fo be able to avoid x!cizfa!f\ and 
receive the truth and make farther profici- 
ency in it. III. Hence it is manifeil 

that the condiiB of men in their affairs de- 
pends in a great meafure on the true and on 
thcfalfe interpretation of the prophetical word: 
and hereby we are admoniflied to fuit our- 
fclves wdfely to the times we live in. The 
follov/ing V'^ part treats more at large of 
this iubied". 

Part IV. 319 

XLIII. But efpecially, hereby fome er^ 
rors fall to the ground, either aiitient ones 
which in modern times hav« been plaufibly 
fet off, or new and lately fprung up: fuch 
as I. The error that the times of the 

Beafl and the "1000 years run on parallel 
with one another. However narrow the 
bounds were into which the antients other- 
wife contracted the times, they never allowed 
the leaft part of thefe two periods to be co- 
temporary. II. The error that the 
1000 years began in Conftantine's time, 
III. The error that a Day in the Revelation 
figmfiQ^ Jometimes a common Tear^ or 'e^ejy 
where a common Day, On the other 
hand we are the more feniible of the benefit 
oi^^ fundamental pofitiojis^ and the marks of 
a true Expofition which we have laid down 
in § XXXI, XXXII of the Introduction, in 
the Iir part of the conclufion, and in §. xxx 
of this IV part. 

XLIV. The more ftriClly any man ihall 
examine this whole ^ ilhijlration of the Reve- 
lation^ the more, I hope, he will be convinced 

' Viz, the introduclion, the expofition itfelf, r.nd the con- 

320 Conclusion. 

that I avoid air the abovementioned errors, 
and propofe nothing that clashes with the 
true principles, but rather adopt them all. 
As to the calculation of the times, many 
have p-one in the middle "way before me: "" fo 
I offer nothing new on that head but a pre- 
cife determination of the length of the prophe- 
tical times, which goes in that middle way. 
^his is not only co?ifiJlent nviih thofe things 
v/hich have been formerly difccveredby others-, 
but alfo CONFIRMS the7n and is confirmed by 
them. And thus there appears again that 
agreement W^-\ former Expofitions which was 
required in the end of the IIP Part. 'Tis 
true the truth of the Expofition of the word 
of God, in prophetical as well as other 
points, by no means depends on the confent 
of men in their opinions, or on their autho- 
rity; yet it is of great ufe to read former wri- 
ters: for as every man who writes any thing 
now hopes to benefit others (if he does not, 
he would do better to let alone writing); fo 
he ought candidly to judge that others before 
him wrote with the like hopes, and con- 

"* See Introd. ^. liii. 

Part IV. 321 

fequently to improve himfelf by help of 
their gifts, their labour and knowledge, and 
by their miftakes too. And as in every age 
God has beftowed on the lovers of truth 
fome knov^ledge of it, it is truly no eafy mat- 
ter to colled: it all together: but when an 
Expofitor does not fear ch in their writings for 
what has been already beftowed on them 
and may be found there but minds the text 
only^ many things may remain hidden to his 
eyes, and he may be long perplexed about 
places that are cleared already by others. 
For my part I have made the beft ufe of 
them that I could 3 and I hope I am thereby 
enabled to do others the better fervice. 


CONSISTING of wholefome Ad- 
monitions how to avoid all abufe and 
miftake and to make a right and 
profitable ufe of the foregoing, and 
fuch like refledions on the propheti- 
cal fcripturcs. 

R r 

322 Conclusion. 

I. The events related in hiftory from St, 
John's days to our times agree moft exadly 
with this fublime Prophecy: by which agree- 
mejit the truth of the word of God is moft 
clearly and irrefragably proved againft all 
Infidels \ ^^ truth oi \ki^ Chrifiian religion a- 
gainft the "Jews, "Turks, &c. nay the truth of 
the Evangelical religion{i Popery. 

Abbadie, not long before his death pub- 
liili'd a large expofition of Ch. vi, vii, viii, 
and ix, of the Revelation, entituled, The 
triumph of Providence and Religion, as a Sup- 
plement to his treatife of the truth of the 
Chrifiian religion. Now all that he ad- 
vanccth, in the beginning of his P' part, p. 
1 6, againft the /coffers, and in the conclufion 
of his IV'^ part, p. 663, againft i. \ht Hea- 
then-, 2. the Jews y 3. \\-\Q Mahometans ', 4. 
the Arians and Socinians ; 5. Roman-catho- 
licks-, 6. Atheifis, Deifis, Sceptics and Infidels-, 
all this, I fay might be built ftill ?7iore firmly 
on the grounds of this prefent Expofition. 

IL In the Revelation the holinefs of God 
is amply difplayed y and therefore both the 
expofitor and the reader of it ought to have 
their hearts prepared to ftiew a holy fear and 

Part VIL 323 

becoming reverence. Whatever God 

teacheth, that we ought to apply ourfelves 
v^ith diligence to learn -, neither feeking for 
more, nor contenting ourfelves with lefs : 
and we ought alfo to apply it all to his glory 
and our falvation^ and to the exciting of our 
devotion ; and not waft all our labour on meer 
knowledge-: But many deal with the Prophe- 
cies as they do with an Enigma. Before 
it is folved, they have a tickling impatience, 
a longing expedlation, and an agreeable fo- 
licitude about it: but as foon as it is folved, 
they are weary oi tbis^ and want a new one. 
And therefore we may fairly conclude that 
if any man could at once give full and fatis- 
faftory anfwers to all the queftions among 
the learned, he would have little thanks 
from them; for he would but only fpoil 
their play and their paftime. But thofe 
who receive the truth with due thankfulnefs 
and refpeft, as foon as they come to the 
knowledge of it apply it to ufe; and that par- 
ticularly as well as in general. 

III. Many men if they would exercife 
themfelves more in meditating on the word 
of God, his promifes, and his judgments. 

324 Conclusion. 

both in paft times and thofe that are yet to 
come, would not find their labour in the 
ufe of their faculties fo fmitlefs^ but would 
hefe/i/iikofthe almighty Power, the good- 
nefs and faithfulnefs of God, and find in 
that fenfe more ftrength to overcome them- 
felves and all either inward or outward op- 
pofition than in the reftlefs agitation of their 
own thoughts, Thofe Pfalms whofe begin- 
ning often expreffeth the fenfe of the fharpeft 
inward trouble and temptation, yet end in 
a delightful defcant on the divine Oeconomy. 
God has not exhibited his promiies to his 
Church in vain: but if no one in particular 
will chufe to enjoy the comfort of them, to 
what purpofe are they recorded in the Scrip- 

IV. Though our Forefathers, and th^ir 
refifting even to blood the Frotejiant Church 
has attained to the enjoyment of a liberty of 
confciencey the high value of which thofe 
fouls alone know how to prize who have 
with difficulty efcaped the iron furnace of 
Romiih fiavery. The enjoyment of this li- 
berty many take to be their acknowledged 
right and make ufe of it according to their 

Part VIL 325 
ikill and ability, not only for their own pri- 
vate eafe and comfort, but alfo openly in all 
their behaviour, converfation and writings; 
and yet thefe very men do not fcruple incon- 
fiderately to pronounce it ^//, one part with, 
another, to be one mere Babel But though, 
alas! there are diforders, too too many, in 
all places; yet there is a great difference be- 
tween other Churches and that which iri the 
prophecy is called Babylon, As depraved as 
Jerufalem was, yet it was no BabeL 

— — __. On this head 

we are taught, in the Revelation, to judge 
not according to appearances but to judge 7'igh' 
teous judgment , 

V. The times in which, one after ano- 
ther, holy men's lot falls, are either thofe 
near about the terms or boundaries^ when one 
period is near run out and fomewhat elfe is 
going to appear ; or middle times, in which 
one or more generations may pafs without 
any remarkable change. In middle times one 
may be in fome meafure indifferent: but the 

326 Conclusion. 

times near the bounds require watchfulnefs, 
and will make thofe watchful who are willing 
to be awaked. The Ifraelites were to behave 
themfelves, while they were in the midft of 
their Egyptian flavery or Babylonian capti- 
vity, in a manner very different from what 
they were to do at the time of their going out 
of Egypt, ^or return from Babylon. 

VL Those who enterprize great, fine, 
fpecious and important things ought not, 'tis 
true, to fuffer themfelves to be difcouraged 
from what they are well ajjured they have a 
call to : but yet they ought to confider too, 
what is or is not practicable at this time, 
while there are yet fo many hellilli obftacles 
in the way: left they fhould be icandalized 
if they have not prefent fuccefs More 

fach cautions are to be feen in the IV'^ and 
V''' part of this conclufion. 

VII. We are now to expeft soon, one 
after another, the Calamities which the 
OTHER Beast brings on for the fervice of 
\!at firjl', the Harvest, and the Vin- 
tage J the pouring out of the Vials ; the 
Judgment of Babylon j the final 
Rage of the Beast, and his Destruc- 

Part VIL 327 

TioN; and the Binding of Satan. O 
how great are thefe T'hings ! how Jl:orf the 
Time ! 

What is it then we ft and moft in need 
of? Wisdom, Patience, Fidelity, 
Watchfulness. It cannot^ it mujl not 
be that we fhould continue fettled on our Lees. 

This is no agreeable Meffage and Injunc- 
tion to Flefh and Blood, if it be rightly " un- 
derftood. The Wife^ the Mighty, the 

tJoble oithis World are aftonifhed when they 
are told there will soon be ^ great Change. 
Nevertherlefs the things which Jhall be (Rev. 

i. 19.) WILL BE. 

VIII. What particularly the Numbers^ 
which in Daniel were fealed and w^ere firft 
opened by means of the Revelation of Jesus 
Christ, and alfo come out fo punctually; 
what they^ I fay, may contribute to the con^ 
vi5lion of the Jews, is left to the confidera- 
tion and the trial of thofc who are qualified 
to underftand the Prophets and to deal with 
the Jews. See Introd. §. xxviii at the end. 

IX. Many do not regard fuch thinp-s as 
thefe : and among others there are fo many ' 

f See Jerem. xlviii. u. and Zephan. i. 12. 

328 Conclusion. 

mifconceptions, fo many evafions and ob- 
jedlions againft the whole or againft iovntpar-* 
ticular points^ that when a Man thinks he 
has difpatched ten of them, a hundred ftart 
up in their ftead. Often indeed they them- 
felves deflroy one another, but are of fuch 
a nature that though they are eafy to be an-, 
fwered jingly^ yet with their multitude they 
would wear out any Perfon that would take 
the trouble to anfwer them all. 

Now I have laid all open to all the World. 
He that cares not for it may let it alone : 
He that can receive it^ let him receive it. 

How majiy intportant things^ O Lord, 
Jesus, in thy Revelation, lie open to 
xkiy fight ^ which my dim eyes have overlookt ! 

Do thou out of thy Fulnefs fupply wherein 
I am deficient, both for me and for others. 

To thee he the Glory and the Power 

for ever and ever ! 



O R 



Summary of the whole Exposition. 

Chap. Verfe. 
I. I — 7. )J(^^)!^HE mamificent T'k/e 
jg^ T p^ of the book. 
4—6. )^^^^ The adJrefs: which 
gives this book the form of 
an epi/lk. 
7, 8. Kfummary of the whole book. 
9 — 20. St. John relates in what manner 
he was appointed for deliver- 
ing this important prophecy. 
Patmos lies in the midft of 
thofe regions of the world in 
which the prophecy is ful- 


Chap. Verfe. 

I. 13. From this majeftic defcription 

of Jesus Christ are taken 
his titles in the following 
e^iftles to the feven Angels 
of the {Q,vtn Churches. 

II. 1. The feven Churches in Alia, 

and efpecially their Angels^ 
are exhorted to repentance 
and conftancy, and the com- 
ing of the Lord notified to 
them. To them that over^ 
come glorious things are pro- 
mifed. The three firft 

and the four laft addrefles, 
> have a particular connexion 
with one another. 

III. 20. The coming of the Lord in 

all thefe addrefles (excepting 
only that to the Angel of the 
church of Smyrna^ for a par- 
ticular reafon) is notified as 
nearer and nearer in. each of 
them: therefore in this lafl 
it is faid, Behold I am fiand- 
ing at the door and knocking. 


Chap. Verfe, 
IV. I. Here begins the main vision 
which extends to C. xxii. 5. 
V. I, In the feven Seals which arc 
opened quickly one after ano- 
ther, is expreffed the giving 
oi all power in heaven and in 
earth to the Lamb. 
VL I. The four firjl feals relate to 
vifible things^ and reprefent 
how all times of ( i.) Victory 
and (2.) War, (3.) all the 
feafons^ plenty and dearth and 
(4.) all general calamities 
are in the power of theLamb : 
and of each of thefe zfajft- 
ple is given in the reign of 
Trajan, in the eaft, weft, 
fouth and rorth. 
9. The three latter feals relate to 
invijible things: viz, the fifth 
to the Saints depa?^ted 2ind the 
Martyrs; the fixth to the 
dead that are in mifery ; and 
the feventh to the Angelsy 


Chap. Verfe. 

VI. 9. particularly thofe feven to 

whom the feven trumpets 
were given. 
II. This chronos reaches from A. 
D. 97 to A. D. 12085 when 
to the Martyrs under heathen 
Rome were added thofe under 
the Romijh Papacy, 

VII. 3 By this fealing, the chofenfeed 

from among Ifrael were 
preferved againft the follow- 
ing Plagues. 
9. Here is a multitude of fuch as 
were gone out of this world 
to a happy ftate in the other. 
After this, more fuch multi- 
tudes appear. 
VIII. 6. Of the feven Angels, one af- 
ter anotherfoundstheTRUM- 
PETS given them: whereby 
the ' Brake is applied to 

• A Brake is an inftrument ufed in dreffing o^ fax, by 
which that part of it which is of no other ufe but to be burnt 
is by repeated firokes bruifed and crumbled, and fo prepared 
to be readily feparated by the teeth of a ftrong comb from the 
ufeful part, whereof linnen, of various degrees of fnenefs, is 


Chap. Verfe. 
VIII. 6. the power of this world, 
fo that at laft it muft all re- 
vert to the dominion of Je- 
sus Christ. The 
whole prophecy and the com- 
pletion of it always go on in 
xhQ fame order together. 
7. The trumpets of the (omv Jirjl 
Angels have a particular con- 
nexion with one another, and 
relate to vifible things. The 
trumpet of the p-Jl angel 
was fulfilled, in the eaft, 
by the great flaughter of 
Jews in the IF century: 
that of the fecond in the weft, 
in the Iir century, by the 
irruption of foreign nations: 
of the t/jtrd, in the fouth, 
in the IV'^ century, by the 
Arian calamities: of 
the fourth in the northern 
region, in the V'*" century, 
by the ruin of the Roman 


Chap. Verfe. 

VIII. 13. The trumpets of the three lajt 
angels have a particular con- 
nexion with one another, and 
bring with them three woes 
which run in a track from 
eaft to weft. The fe- 

cond broke out about the Eu- 
phrates, xh^jirji farther 
eaft, and the third in 

the weft. The Jirji was 

great; the fecond yet more 
heavy: the third v^ov^ of all. 
There is always an interval 
between each two. 
IX. 4. Those that 2iXtfealed are of the 
tribes of the children of Ifrael: 
thofe therefore that had not 
the feal are the other Jews. 
Thefe were at that time very 
grievoufly oppreffed in Perfa^ 
where they had formerly been 
very powerful. 
5. Five prophetical months are 
79 Years full, from A°* 510 
to 589, after which it fared 


Chap. Verfe. 

IX. 5. better again with the Jews 
in Perfia. 

II. Abaddon, ApoIIyon: deftroyer. 

13. The fecond wo is the killi?7g 
of fuch numbers of men by 
the Saracens. 

15. A PROPHETICAL hour and a 
day and a month and a year 
make 207 years nearly; from 
A°- 634 to 840. 

20. Scarcely was the flaughter 
made by the Saracens a httle 
abated, but the worfiip of 
images was firmly eftabliih'd 
intheeaft A''- 842. 
X. I.— XL 13. Here is a previous declaration 
of the fcope of that moji im^ 
port ant trumpet oithtfeventh 
X. 6. This non-chronos reaches from 
the oath of the angel to the 
binding of fatan. 
XI. 2, 3. These 42 months, and thefe 
1260 days are to be under- 
ftood in theufual acceptation, 


Chap. Verfe. 

XL 2, 3. and mean common months 
and days 5 and are yet to 
come. Yet the mentioning 
them here fo long before is 
in no wife ^ improper; fmce 
the whole period of which 
they are a part began before 
the end of the fecond wo. 
15. The trumpet of the feventh an- 
gel extends from the middle 
of the IX' ^century to the end 
of the world: and we 
are aBually under if. 
XII. I. The prophecy does not begin 
again anew at this place: we 
are only fhewn how the trum- 
pet of the feventh angel (the 
contents of which were writ- 
ten in C. XI. 15 — 18.) is 
carried on from C. xi. 19. 
XII. I. to C.xxii. 5; and that 
the execution of it reaches 
even into eternity. The 

twelve liars are the twelve 

* See Note p. 6. 


Chap. Verfe. 

XIL I . tribes of Ifrael at their convert 

3. Satan has not been mentioned 
from the beginning of C. iv. 
i. e. in all this Vifion : but 
now his appearance is fo 
much the more horrible. 

6* THESEI260 prophetical days are 
657 years full, and contain 
in them the church of Bohe- 
mia from the planting of the 
chriftian religion there A"' 
864, 'till the breaking out 
of the reformation A°* 1521. 
At the end of the 1260 days 
the Reformation begins: and 
at the end of the 3 I times 
the thoufand years begin. 
The former of thefe revolu- 
tions was a great one and a 
good) the latter yet more 
fo: and they are the one to 
the other as the day-break 
to the rifing of the fun. 
12. This Wo is that thihd Wo. 

[ 10] 

Chap. Verfe. 
XII. 12. The angel of the abyfs had 
brought on xhtjirjl-^ and the 
four angels by the Euphrates 
when loofed, xhtfecond: Sa- 
tan himfelf T2Li{cs the third. 
The fhort time, or few kairoi, 
makes 888 y years, as after- 
ward the 3 4 times make 
777 T y^^^s. Thefe two 
periods begin the one before 
the other, but end together. 
In both of them is included 
the number of the Beaft, 
which makes 42 prophetical 
months or 666 y years, as a 
Chronos is 1 1 1 1 y years, and 
two Chronoi or 2222 -f years 
anAion oriEvum, C. xiv. 6. 
The proof of this may befeen 
in the LiiroduBion. 
The third Wo, the 3 4- times 
of the Woman, and the 
times of the Beaft have been 
in their courfe a long time, 
are fo at present, and are 
hafiening quickly to theiv End. 

[ " ] 

Chap. Verfe. 

XII. 12. Toward this end that which 

was previoully declared in 
C. X, xi. will be fulfilled. 
As /o us, the xiii'*" and xiv'^ 
chapters require our mojlferu 
ous confideratioriy and NOW 
is the peculiar time for us to 
reap benefit from this pro- 

XIII. I. By the fea is underftood the 

weft. Here the Hilde^ 

hrandine Papacy is defcribed, 
from A°' 1077. 

II. Tm^fecondBeaJiWiWi^o^ soon 

break out with his horrible 

abominations. Hereafter 

he is feveral times called the 

falfe Prophet, 

XIV. 6. The voice of this Angel was 

heard at the beginning of the 
laft century; and that of hifn 
who follow d himy about the 
middle of it. 
10, II. This is the inoji dreadful 
lhreat?2i72g in all the holy 

[ 12 ] 

Chap. Verfe. 

XIV. 14-20. fcriptures. See §. ix. of the 

The great Harvejl and the 

great Vintage are near, at the 


XVI. I. The Vials of the four firjt, 

and fo likewife the Vials of 
the three laji Angels have (as 
was the cafe in the trumpets) 
a particular connexion with 
one another. The trum-^ 
pets, fetching a lo7ig compafs^ 
aim their blow at a third party 
and ftrike at the kingdom of 
the world : but the ^/^A pro- 
ceed j^^^^'^ and ftrike diredf- 
ly at the whole. They chiefly 
concern the Beaji^ as he has 
infinuated himfelf into the 
kingdom of the world or tem- 
poral power. 

XVII. 8. The duration of the Beaft is 

here divided into three por- 
tions : I. as he was in being 
in the time of his number, 
viz.42 months or 666 years. 

Chap. Verfe. 
XVIL 8. 2. as he 'is mf, but on the 
contrary the Woman hz^fub- 
duedtini rides upon theBeaft: 
3. as he will rage at his latter 
end, as the fpecial and very 
ma?i of Sin 2Lndi fon of Perdi- 
dition* What is here pro- 
phefied concerning Babylon, 
or Romey comes to pafs in 
the middle or fecond portion, 
which is yet to come. We 
muil be careful to obfervc 
the difference between the 
Beajl and the Woman : and 
alfo look for it in the proper 
9. Each Head' of the Beaft has 
on/y one meani?ig; but the 

-^ A Beaji (or rather n^}ild Beaft, 9>!^.o!/), both in Daniel 
and here, is the Emblem of a Series or Succeffion of iMen 
exercifmg a lawlefs arbitrary Power. Therefore when the 
f^iver is gone, the B^ji is in ftria propriety faid not to be. 

** The Pope (meaning by that word the ^hoU Series of 
Popes from Bilddbrand to the Bon of Perdition, incluji've) is 
the H.?fl^/ of that Beaft, ox King of theSubjefts of that Power. 
pi|t as the Beaft is defcribed as having kvzn Heads, each 
iignifying ^ King and alfo a Hill as the Seat or Throne of 
his Kingdom ; the nvhole Series of Popes muft be divided into 
feiven farts, each of which particular Series is one Head, that 
is, one King, who reigns on his peculiar and appropriaie liiU. 

[ Hi 

Chap. Verfc. 

XVII. 9. thing that is mea?if is a com- 
founds viz. a king and a hill 
together. The i'' head is 
the reign of the pope on 
Mount Ccelius^ in the Lateran\ 
the 2^ on the Vatican Mount % 
the 3^ on the ^irinal-y the 
4*'' on the Efquiline Mount y 
where ftands Maria Maggi- 
ore. The remaining three, 
time will fliew us. 
16. The Beast bimfe/fwith the 
concurrence of the ten Kings 
that adhere to him^ will make 
the WnoRB defolate : She has 
nothing to fear from the Pro- 
XVIII. 4. This coming out of Babylon 
will be a little before her 
Plagues come upon her. 
13. In the midft of the Greek text 
ftands the Latin word Rheda^ 
for a Chariot: which hints at 
Italy ', as the Chaldaic word 
in the Hebrew text, Jerem. x. 
II. does at the Chaldeans, 

[ 15 ] 

Chap. Verfe. 

XIX. 2, Here the requeft of the Souls 
under the altar, repeated in 
their very words, is tranfpos'd 
into a fong of rejoicing. 
II. Here comes on the great 
flaughter, in which the Bead 
together with the falfe Pro- 
phet arc deftroyed. 

XX. I. Satan had a httle before (un- 
der the third wo, fo late as 
C. xvi. 13) committed an 
enormous crime : and now, 
after beholding the defolation 
of Babylon and deftrucfbion 
of the Beaft, he is bound and 
2. We muft carefully diftinguifh 
between the two-fold 1000 
years; the one mentioned in 
verfe 2, 3, 73 and the other 
in verfe 4, 5, 6. 

XXI. I. The new Heaven and the new 
Earth, together with the new 
Jerufalem belong to eternity, 
C. xxii. 5. 

Chap. Verfe. 

XXlL 6-21. This Conclufion of the Book 
aiifwers in every part to the 
lo, 11. An Expofitor alfo fhould be 
fincere aftd a plain-dealer, 
and not be moved with either 
the gain-fayings of Scoffers 
and Hypocrites, or the ill ufe 
that may be made of the 
1 8, 19. Those alfo adJ and take away ^ 
who oppofe a well-grounded 
and confcientious Revijion of 
the original T^ext of this in- 
eftimable Prophecy , and 
frighten away People from 
the ancient purity of it under 
the Name of a dangerous 
20. Learn, whoever you are that 
hear this, to fay, — and fay 
indeed heartily, Come. 


\ '-^ f^, <o 





1 1 1 Kt . 1- J 






H i^^o